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RECENT 

WORKS ON THE LATHE 



By THE Rev. JAMES LUKIN, B.A. 

TURNING FOR BEGINNERS. 

Cloth, ij. td. net. 

POSSIBILITIES OF SMALL LATHES. 

Cloth. \s. 6d. net. 

SIMPLE DECORATIVE LATHE WORK. 

Cloth. 2s. dd. net. 

By J. H. EVANS. 

ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

3 vols. Cloth. 3J'. dd. net, each. 

GUILBERT PITMAN, 
8s, 86, & 87, Fleet Street, London, E.C. 



ORNAMENTAL TURNING 



ORNAMENTAL TURNING 

A WORK OF PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION IN 
THE ABOVE ART 



J. H. EVANS 



In Three Volumes 

VOLUME III 
WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS AND PLATES 



LONDON 
GUILBERT PITMAN 

86 & 87, FLEET STREET, E.G. 
1904 



MAY BE HAD THROUGH ALL BOOKSELLEES 



PRINTED BY 

WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 

LONDON AND BECCLES. 



[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 
QAii rights reser^'ed.') 



CONTENTS OF THIRD VOLUME. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE SEGMENT APPARATUS. 



TAGR 



Description of the Apparatus as made in the simple form — Also 
as fitted with the Worm-wheel and Tangent-screw — Im- 
proved Spring Action to keep the Screw from contact with 
the Wheel, when not in use — Reference to improved action, 
in preference to the Cam — Description of the Apparatus 
employed as a means of sub-dividing the work — Also as a 
Dividing and Wheel-cutting machine, as arranged for the 
Earl of Crawford and Balcarres ..... 1 



CHAPTER IT. 

THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 

Description of the Apparatus as fitted to the front of the Lathe- 
head — Mode of Manufacture — Explanation of the advan- 
tages of the Worm-wheel and Tangent-screw in preference 
to the Katchet and Detent — Engraving of the Apparatus 
as thus fitted — Details of the improved arrangement of the 
Apparatus as fitted to the back of the Lathe-head — Pull- 
page engraving of complete Lathe-head with it attached — 
Its employment in combination with the Ellipse Chuck — 
Improved Universal Joint — Engraving of Second View, 
illustrating the Dividing Chuck and Divisions on Worm- 
wheel — Mode of Hinging the Frame of Tangent-screw — 
Illustration of extra Arbor, designed by the author, to 
increase the length of twist — Explanation of the advan- 
tages claimed and due to the arrangement 



VI CONTENTS OF THIRD VOLUME. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE SUKFAOE SPIRAL. 

PAGE 

Details of the manner in -which the Apparatus is made and 
attached to the Lathe — Its connection to the Mandrel and 
Slide-rest by Mitre and Eound-edged Wheels— Application 
of two Universal Joints, to combine the motion of the 
Mandrel with the Slide-rest, without the necessity for 
Mitre-wheels — Engravings of the Apparatus ... 21 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE RECIPROOATOB. 

Engravings of the Instrument (two views), showing improve- 
ments in its construction — Details of its Manufacture — 
Table of Change-wheels for Single Gearing — Also for 
Double Gearing ........ 25 

CHAPTER V. 

MANIPOLATIOX OF THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 

Description of the Apparatus as applied to the production of 
Fine Threads — Also those of longer Pitches, produced by 
Double Gearing, rendering more appropriate work for 
Decorative purposes — Compound Spiral Turning — Plates 
of Specimens of Work ....... 34 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE SPIRAL APPARATUS AND ELLIPSE CHUOK IN COMBINATION. 

Plate of Elliptic Casket— Manner of reproduction — Details of 

the necessary settings , . . . . . . ,51 

CHAPTER VII. 

EXAMPLES OF SURFACE SPIRALS AND REOIPROCATOR. 

Plate of examples of work produced by connecting the Slide- 
rest to the Spiral Apparatus, when the former is set at a 
right angle to the Lathe-bed — Examples of patterns ema- 
nating from the employment of the Eeciprocator Full 

details of the various settings and instruments used . ^^ 



CONTENTS OF THIRD VOLUME. Vll 



CHAPTER VIII. 

IVORY OANDELABKA. 

PACK 

The selection of the material — Necessity for maintaining the pro- 
portions of the design — Plate of specimen Candelabra in 
ivory, with six branches, and Centre Tazza and Sconce — 
Details and settings to facilitate its reproduction . . 68 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE SPHERICAL SLIDE-KEST. 

Illustration— Full details of its Manufacture — Description of 
Improvements — Reference to importance of the Segment- 
stop with Adjusting Screws — Also the additional Arm to 
receive the AN'heels of the Spiral Apparatus . . .79 



CHAPTER X. 

MANIPULATION OF THE SPHERICAL REST. 

Diagram and Illustration of Curved Tools — Engravings of 
Circular Parting-tools, invented and patented by the Rev. 
C. C. Ellison — Plate of Specimen of Work, also by Mr. 
Ellison — Instruction and Settings for its reproduction 



CHAPTER XI. 

VASE ORNAMENTED "WITH SPHERICAL SLIDE-REST. 

Plate of Vase— Details of Settings and Instruments required in 

its reproduction ........ 101 

CHAPTER XII. 



ELLIPTIC CASKET. 



Plate— Description of the manner of Chucking the various 
parts — Arrangements required to reproduce it . 



Ill 



VUi CONTENTS OF THIRD VOLUME. 

CHAPTER XTII. 

THE GEOMETKIO SLIDE-EEST. 

PAGE 

Engraving of the Apparatus, as invented and patented by 
Capt. K. Pudsey Dawson — Explanation of its connection 
with the Spiral Apparatus, by which the various Geo- 
metrical Designs are obtained — Six Examples, showing 
the results — Details of Manipulation . . . .120 

CHAPTER XIV. 

THE ELLIPSE CCTTEE. 

Engraving of tlie Instrument — Full details of its Manufacture — 
Reference to the inventor, Major James Ash — Mr. Perigal's 
Completion of the Instrument by addition of Worm-wheel 
and Tangent-screw — Description of Primary Examples of 
work to be produced by its employment .... 128 

CHAPTER XV. 

THE EPICYCLOID AL CUTTElt. 

Two Engravings of the Instrument — Its Manufacture — De- 
scription of various Improvements fully entered into — 
Engraving of small Drilling Instrument and Eccentric 
Cutter designed by the author — Manipulation of the Instru- 
ment .......... 140 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE ROSE CUTTER. 

Engraving of the Instrument — Necessary Details for its Manu- 
facture — Six primary Examples of its Employment — Appli- 
cation of the small Drilling Instrument and Eccentric 
Cutter, to extend the variety of work . . . .152 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF THIRD 
VOLUME. 



PIG. PAGE 

168a. The Spiral Apparatus 8 

169. The Spibal Apparatus 14 

169*. The Spiral Apparatus . ... . . 16 

169b. Additional Arbor for Spiral Apparatus . .19 

170. The Surface Spiral ....... 23 

170a. Double Universal Joints ...... 24 

171. 172. Kechprocators ....... 26 

173. The Spherical Slide-rest ...... 79 

174-177. Spherical Parting Tools 91 

178-179. Curved Tools — Diagram illustrating Cdrves . 93 

180. The Geometric Slide-best ...... 120 

180*. Six Examples of Work produced by the Geometric 

Slide-rest 122, 124, 126 

181. The Ellipse Cutter ....... 128 

182. The Epiotcloidal Cutter ...... 140 

183, 184. The Epiotcloidal Cutter 147 

185. The Epicycloidal Cutter ...... 140 

186. The Rose Cutter ....... 153 

187-192. Six Examples op Work produced by the Kobe 

Cutter 156, 160, 162 



PLATES OF THIRD VOLUME. 



plate page 

10. Specimens oe Wokk produced with the Spiral Ap- 

paratus .......•• 37 

11. Specimen of Compound Spiral Turning, executed by 

Oapt. K. Pddsey Dawson 43 

Ua. Specimen illustrating a further Application of the 

Spiral Apparatus . 44 

12. Examples of Surface Spiral Decoration, produced by 

the Eeciprocator ....... 55 

13. Ivory Candelabra for Seven Candles ... 71 

14. Specimen Vase, turned by the Eev. C. C. Ellison, 

EMPLOYING the EoSE ENGINE, ELLIPSE OhUCK, AND 

Spherical Slide-rest ...... 95 

15. Vase with Deep Base, turned and ornamented with 

THE Spherical Slide-eest ..... 103 

16. Ivory Elliptic Casket, turned with the Spherical 

Slide-rest and Ellipse Chuck . . . .115 



ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

CHAPTER T. 

THE SEGMENT APPARATUS. 

This apparatus has been referred to in the previous 
volume, wherein its employment in combination with 
the various ornamental chucks, especially the dome 
chuck, is clearly detailed, but although it has been 
explained, and repeatedly noticed with regard to many 
of the examples contained in the plates, it is necessary 
that the entire details connected with its manufacture 
and further uses should be described, so that if desired 
the more simple form may be first added to the lathe, 
and afterwards completed by the addition of the worm- 
wheel and tangent-screw. 

The plain form consists of a gun-metal disc, which 
is attached to the back of the pulley, and has a wide 
rim on its face, through which seventy-two holes are 
drilled equidistantly, and afterwards made taper with a 
broach of the necessary form. These holes are to 
VOL. III. I B 



2 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

receive the steel pins -which act as stops, to decide the 
length of the segment of the circle to be cut. 

On the periphery of the disc a line is marked across 
the full width, opposite every sixth hole, and figures 
engraved to denote the same, thus : 72, 6, 12, 18, 24, 
and so on, round the entire number. A stout steel 
post is fixed to stand vertically on the lathe-head, and 
is sunk into the mandrel frame at the base, and fixed 
by a strong screw ; at the top it is turned to a right 
angle, and has through the projection a capstan-head 
screw, on each side, upon which, when employed, the 
pins that fit into the holes in the plate take effect. 
The screws are made to adjust in each direction, so that 
any distance less than the space of one hole may be 
obtained, and it is necessary to be sure that the screws 
are partially withdrawn, so that their movement may 
be available for this purpose. 

Many very elegant patterns are, with the aid of this 
apparatus, cut on the faces of different objects, such 
figures consisting of arcs of circles, grouped and ar- 
ranged to form various designs ; and to enlarge upon 
this particular form of work it is necessary at the same 
time to employ the eccentric or other of the ornamental 
chucks, in order that the different cuts may be placed 
in positions varying from concentricity to the axis of 
the work. 

The foregoing remarks are sufficient to show how 



THE SEGMENT APPARATUS. 3 

the simple form of segment apparatus is made and 
attached to the lathe-head, but in this form it can only 
be considered quite a primary attachment, which has 
been much improved by the addition of the worm-wheel 
and tangent-screw. 

This is illustrated by Figs. 1, 2, and 169, the latter 
being the engraving of a complete lathe-head ; and it 
will be seen that the metal disc and steel vertical post, 
with its capstan-head adjusting-screw, are in every way 
similar to that already described for the plain segment 
apparatus. The periphery of the disc is then cut to a 
worm-wheel of one hundred and eighty teeth, and this 
is actuated by a tangent-screw, which is iitted into a 
strong metal frame, hinged on centres in a frame at 
the back of the lathe-head, and moved in and out 
of gear by a steel cam, which is worked by a square 
that receives a key, a steel projection being let into 
the casting upon which the cam works. Towards the 
front, two steel pillars are screwed into the head, and 
filed away to the half, so that the metal frame moves 
within them, and is thus prevented from any movement, 
except that required to raise and lower it. 

This particular action has rather a disadvantage, 
inasmuch as it is likely to be accidentally raised, and 
thus damage the teeth of the wheel if the mandrel 
should be rotated. To avoid this the author has now 
introduced a spring underneath the frame, which keeps 



4 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

the screw from inadvertent displacement. The follow- 
ing arrangement is also an improvement, as it admits 
of the screw being firmly retained, either in or out of 
gear. The cam is dispensed with, and the end of the 
frame made to correspond with the arc of a circle 
described from the centre-screws at the back. A block 
of steel is then fixed to the lathe-head, with a projection 
to fit the metal arc ; through the front an elongated 
hole is made, a screw passing through it into the steel 
block. The tangent-screw may be raised to gear with 
the wheel, and there secured by the fixing-screw, and, 
when freed from the same, it may also be fixed, and 
be prevented from accidentally coming in contact with 
the wheel and spoiling the teeth. 

It will be obvious that by the introduction of the 
worm-wheel a slow speed is obtained, by which the 
mandrel is rotated between the limits of the two pins, 
when adjusted for any length of segment ; and while 
cutting deep mouldings this is most essential, as the 
hand has not sufficient command over the pulley to 
ensure smooth and perfect cutting. 

As previously stated, the various chucks, such as 
the eccentric, rectilinear, dome, etc., are adjusted to, 
and held in the required position, and the weight of the 
latter, from the fact of the horizontal arm extending so 
much on one side of the centre, renders the worm-wheel 
almost indispensable. 



THE SEGMENT APPARATUS. 5 

The benefit of this addition is not confined to the 
advantages already described. It will be seen by 
reference to the engraving, Fig. 169, that on the end of 
the tangent-screw a micrometer is fitted, and divided 
into ten equal parts ; the worm-wheel and screw may 
be used in place of the index-point and division on the 
pulley face, and for many purposes it is more appro- 
priate. When employed as the means of dividing and 
sub-dividing the work, it must be remembered that the 
wheel has one hundred and eighty teeth, therefore one 
complete rotation of the tangent-screw moves the man- 
drel through precisely the j^q part of its diameter, and 
that the number of cuts or spaces upon the work result 
from the revolutions of the screw, or partial movement 
of the same, indicated by the division on the micrometer, 
read from a line on the frame ; for instance, two turns of 
the screw gives ninety consecutive cuts, while four result 
in forty-five equal spaces. Against these movements, 
it will be obvious that one half-turn of the screw gives 
three hundred and sixty divisions. 

Fractions of turns of the screw are obtained by the 
addition of extra micrometers, divided to 8, 9, 11, 12, 
and many others, any one of which numbers may be 
employed, and the apparatus may in consequence be 
used as a dividing engine for wheel-cutting ; and again, 
with the worm-wheel and tangent-screw in gear, com- 
bined with the rectilinear and dome chucks, the whole 



6 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

becomes, so to speak, a complete shaping-machine, by 
which the various subjects previously alluded to are 
produced. 

As a dividing engine, the aathor was honoured 
with the order to fit one to a lathe made by him for 
the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, and this was fitted 
to work at the top of the worm-wheel, and by an 
arrangement of arbors to carry wheels similar to those 
used on the geometric chuck, a most complete dividing 
and wheel-cutting apparatus was produced, the position 
for each succeeding cut being indicated by a detent 
falling into a notch on the collar of the spindle, and 
by various collars having different numbers of notches, 
combined with a full set of change-wheels, the addition 
was a complete success. A scale of the movements of 
the tangent-screw to produce from three hundred and 
sixty to almost any number of lines may be worked 
out, but this will be of small value to ornamental 
turners, as the segment apparatus is seldom used for 
such purposes, and the value of its movement is found 
in its employment as described, in connection with the 
dome and other chucks, for the production and decora- 
tion of compound solid forms. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 

This apparatus may be fairly considered as indispens- 
able to a complete ornamental turning lathe, and as it 
can be attached in two ways, it is considered necessary 
to fully explain both methods, in order that the 
distinct merits of the improved plan, as at present 
fitted to the back of the lathe-head, may be clear and 
appreciable. 

The engraving (Eig. 168a) represents the apparatus 
as fitted in what may now be considered the old plan 
— at the front of the lathe-head. A radial arm, it will 
be seen, is arranged to partially rotate in a circular 
groove cut in the front of the lathe-head, concentric to 
the mandrel axis, and is held by a steel binding bolt, 
which passes through a curved slot at the lower 
extremity of the arm. The head of the screw is made 
hexagonal to fit a spanner, which, for all such screws, 
is 1 in. across the flat ; it is also drilled to receive the 
point of a bent lever, which, in many instances, is 
more convenient than the spanner to loosen it, when it 

7 



8 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

is necessary to raise or depress the arm. The long 
mortise slot is then filed out perfectly parallel and 
square, so that the arbors which carry the wheels wiU 
slide from end to end, and fix at any desired position. 

The bodies of the arbors axe made of gun-metal, 
having a flange on one end to bear against the side of 



Ftg.ies. 




the arm, and are screwed at tjie other to receive a 
tubular nut, also made of gun-metal, and passes over 
that part which projects through the arm. When the 
screw is cut, the sides are filed away equally, till the 
body will fit into the mortise and move freely; the 
end of the nut is then filed to fit the standard spanner. 
Through the body of the arbor a steel spindle. 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 9 

with a collar 1^ in. in diameter in the centre, is fitted, 
the hole to receive it being tapered about 2°. The 
spindle must be well fitted and the face of the collar 
bear against the flange of the metal. A steel screw is 
then fitted into the end to keep it in its place, the head 
of the screw being rather less in diameter than the 
width of the parallel slot through which it has to pass 
when fixed to the radial arm. 

The projecting end of the steel spindle is then 
turned to fit the small wheels, which are termed 
pinions, the holes in which are \ in. in diameter ; it is 
then screwed at the end to receive a steel nut similar 
to those previously described, but only | in. thick, 
and this has a thin steel washer before it. The double 
and single arbors are identical in every respect, with 
the exception of the total length of the spindle from 
the face of the collar, the former being long enough to 
receive two wheels, which are used in double gearing ; 
the latter holding one only for a single train, in which 
case the wheels all run in the same plane. It is 
necessary that the spindle which passes through the 
metal body should be always kept close to the flange, 
as it is upon this that the wheels revolve, when in action. 

The intermediate or reversing arbor is made in a 
different way, being composed entirely of steel; a 
wheel of thirty teeth is fitted to work permanently 
upon it ; it is also filed to fit the parallel slot, and has 



lo ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

a corresponding steel nut to fix it. This arbor is of 
very considerable importance, as its intervention 
reverses the action of the apparatus for the production 
of left-hand screws and spirals. Its application will 
be referred to in connection with the various specimens 
of spiral work. In fitting up these arbors, care must 
be taken that the diameters of the various parts do 
not prevent the 30 wheel on the intermediate one 
being placed in gear with the small pinion on the 
double arbor. 

The dividing chuck forms a most important part of 
the apparatus ; it is made from a solid casting, the body 
of which is long enough to admit of the wheels being 
arranged upon it to run in the same plane as those on 
the arbor, when fixed in the arm. It is screwed to 
fit the mandrel nose, and the external diameter turned 
to fit the holes in the large wheels, which are 1^ in. 
in diameter ; the body of the chuck is turned away at 
the back until the wheels are all in one plane. It is 
then screwed with a fine thread, and a circular steel 
nut and washer fitted, to bind the wheels securely to 
it ; the edge of the nut is drilled to receive the end 
of the lever by which it is tightened. This is prefer- 
able to the original plan of drilling small holes in the 
face of the nut, which necessitated the use of a pin- 
wrench, and was found at times inconvenient, and 
consequently discarded. 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. n 

The front of the chuck is bored out to receive the 
stem of the worm-wheel, which must also be well 
fitted, and have a substantial face bearing on the front ; 
it is held by a steel screw, fitted into the stem of the 
wheel, and is passed up the hole where the chuck is 
screwed to fit the nose of the mandrel, and the bottom 
of the hole being turned perfectly true, the wheel 
revolves between it and the front face. 

A metal frame with steel tangent-screw is then 
fitted so that it can be moved in and out of gear, and 
to obtain this action a steel screw is fitted firmly into 
the lower side of the frame and has a plain part larger 
than the' thread, which is screwed tightly to the latter, 
the head just bearing against the face of the projection 
on the chuck, thus forming a centre, or hinge ; a milled 
head-screw is fitted to the opposite end, the plain part 
of which moves in a curved slot, long enough to obtain 
sufficient movement, and by this it is fixed in either 
position as required. This action is the most con- 
venient for the chuck under consideration, as it is at 
times necessary to place the slide-rest in such close 
proximity to it that the cam, as advocated in other 
chucks, is somewhat in the way. 

The worm-wheel and tangent-screw has many 
advantages over the original, and now obsolete ratchet- 
wheel and detent; one particular disadvantage in the 
latter being an inclination to slip, which may arise 



12 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

from any undue amount of force being required to 
remove a metal chuck from the nose. This defect 
has been referred to, as applied to the eccentric and 
ellipse chucks of ancient patterns. Another important 
advantage derived from the worm-wheel is, that it 
can be divided into any fractional part of a whole 
turn of the tangent-screw; and this, for various 
necessary adjustments, is of much importance. 

For all screw-cutting and spiral-turning, ninety- 
six equal divisions are sufficient, and practically more 
than are likely to be required, but the worm-wheel, 
for the reasons given, is vastly superior; the ratchet 
has, therefore, long been discarded in modern lathes. 

The worm-wheel is divided on the edge at every 
complete turn of the tangent-screw, and figured at 
every 6, the collar on the screw is divided into eight 
equal parts, a steel reader or index being fitted on 
each side to read the divisions on the periphery, 
which agree with the zero on the screw-head. The 
end of the slide-rest screw is fitted with a socket to 
carry a wheel, as explained by the illustration (Fig. 
13), that is, for the purpose of holding the various 
change-wheels used in the train, when in action. 
Here again the hexagonal nut takes the place of the 
round one, which, like the large one on the chuck, 
was originally drilled on the face for a pin-wrench. 

Thus far it will be seen that the apparatus, as 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 13 

fitted to the front of the lathe-head, consists of the 
radial arm, double, single, and intermediate, or re- 
versing arbors, sixteen change-wheels and pinions, 
and the dividing chuck ; the number of teeth contained 
in the several wheels are 144, 120, 96, 72, 60, 53, 50, 
48, 36, 30, 24, 20, 18, 16, 15. The wheels that have 
large holes are, when required to be placed on the 
arbors, filled with a metal bush, which fits on to the 
arbor, and has a thin steel washer in front to extend 
beyond the diameter of the aperture. 

Having described the apparatus as fitted to the 
front in this way, the following details of its arrange- 
ment at the back of the head, with its additions and 
improvements, will, it is hoped, clearly illustrate the 
benefits to be obtained by its aid when thus employed, 
and establish its superiority over the original and 
comparatively defective plan. 

The engraving (Fig 169) represents the apparatus 
as arranged ready for use, the train of wheels being 
those which produce a twist of one turn in 7 in. 
approximately. It will be observed that the radial 
arm in this case is attached in precisely the same 
way, but to the opposite end of the lathe-head. The 
three arbors are also similar, being simply reversed 
in the arm, so that the wheels revolve on the left, 
instead of the right side of it. 

Thus far the only alteration consists in reversing 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 15 

the arm and wheels to the position seen in the en- 
graving. The dividing chuck, however, is of quite a 
different character, and is composed of a strong metal 
body of a tubular form, with a projection at the 
end. It is bored, to fit On the end of the mandrel, 
the base of the hole being cut out to fit over the 
projection on the end, which is generally used for 
holding the screw-guide and steel cap or sleeve 
from moving round, when in operation. A hole 
is then bored through the end to allow the screw 
to pass into the end of the mandrel, which retains 
it in its necessary position. The body is then turned 
on the mandrel, or a supplementary arbor (the 
former being preferable, as it ensures perfect accuracy). 
The exact size of the tubular fitting cannot be 
given, as it varies according to the diameter of the 
mandrel. 

The outer diameter of this part should be turned 
slightly taper, about 2°, and left as strong as possible. 
The worm-wheel is then bored out to fit it accurately, 
after which it is transferred to a separate arbor, and 
the periphery cut to a worm-wheel. This, like all 
wheels of a similar character, has ninety-six teeth, 
and is divided, as seen by Fig. 169 *, on the back 
face into ninety-six equal parts, with a long line and 
numerals at every 6. 

The steel tangent-screw is fitted into a metal 



i6 



ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 



frame, which bears against the projecting flange of 
the body of the chuck, the screw by which it is held 
forming its centre of action, and the milled head 
screw on the right side used for olampipg it when in 
or out of gear with the wheel. This screw passes 
through a short curved slot in the flange, and, when 



fic \63 




screwed up, brings the frame in close contact with 
it ; thus, it will be observed, that when it is required 
to move the work round any desired portion of the 
entire circle, the milled head is released, and the 
tangent-screw raised; the mandrel is then moved 
round, carrying the work with it, also the body of 
the dividing chuck, and when the steel index points 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 17 

to the number req^uired, the screw is lowered into 
gear, and the fixing-screw tightened. 

At the base of the headstock a straight arm (seen 
in Figs. 169 and 169 *) is fitted to move transversely, 
having a long parallel slot, and is fixed in its neces- 
sary position by two steel bolts with hexagonal heads, 
which, like that used for fixing the radial arm, are 
drilled to receive the bent lever. 

On the front of this arm a metal frame, with a 
projecting boss on each side, is fitted, and slides on a 
steel fillet, fixed to the' arm, so that it may be raised 
and depressed as required. It also affords a ready 
means of adjusting it to the height of the centre of the 
slide-rest screw. The cylinder boss is bored out to 
receive a steel socket, which revolves freely in it, and is 
retained in its place by a nut and washer. The pro- 
jecting end of the socket is turned down to receive the 
pinions, which are \ in. in diameter, and are also held 
by a nut and washer. It is an advantage to have this 
fitting long enough to hold two wheels, therefore it 
should be 1 in. long in the plain part, and when a wheel 
is fixed to it, it bears the same reference to the train of 
wheels, and the pitch of the spiral cut, as when, in the 
preceding arrangement, it is fixed on the end of the 
main screw of the slide-rest. 

Through the centre of this socket a long steel con- 
necting-rod is fitted, being held at any distance by a 

VOL. III. c 



1 8 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

fixing-screw, the point of which fits into a groove cut 
the entire length of the rod. On the end of the 
connecting-rod an improved double, or universal joint, 
is attached, the end of which fits over the projecting 
socket on the slide-rest screw, and a screw passes 
through both to hold it in its place ; and when the 
wheel on the arbor is placed in gear with that on the 
chuck, and the arm lowered so that the wheel also 
gears with that on the socket, the action of the whole 
train is obtained by turning the winch-handle of the 
slide-rest screw. 

The universal joint, improved and introduced by the 
author, and applied to this particular purpose, has the 
advantage of allowing the slide-rest to be set to an 
angle, to turn a cone or a long taper spiral without the 
interposition of the extra surface spiral apparatus, with 
its round edge and bevel wheels — to be described in the 
following chapter. 

The object of the adjustment in the lower straight 
arm is to allow the connecting-rod to be moved to or 
from the centre, to suit the various positions of the 
slide-rest for work of large or small diameters, and the 
vertical movement of the socket bears the same 
reference to the height of centre of the slide-rest 
screw when set above, below, or at the centre of the 
lathe axis. 

Fig. 169b illustrates a stiU further addition and 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 



19 



improvement by the author, and is for the purpose of 
increasing the length in the twist of spiral. It is simply 
an additional arbor which can be fixed to the frame 
through which the socket holding the connecting-rod 
passes, and will carry two extra wheels to gear with the 
train already described ; this arrangement also disposes 




Fig. 169b. 

of the surface spiral apparatus, which must be used for 
the same purpose when the apparatus is fitted to the 
front of the lathe-head. 

Before giving the details of the various specimens 
illustrated in connection with this apparatus, it will be 
expedient to point out the advantages claimed, and due 



20 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

to it, as attached to tlie lathe in the form we have just 
considered. 

First, then, the extra length of the spiral chuck in 
the front is dispensed with, and the chuck which holds 
the work is placed direct on to the mandrel-nose ; this 
decreases the tendency to vibration, and allows the 
work to be executed in closer proximity to the mandrel ; 
the undue length of the chuck in front being at all 
times a disadvantage. 

Secondly, the work remaining on the mandrel-nose 
does not req[uire to be again turned, which is necessary 
when the apparatus is fitted to the front, as in 
Fig. 168a. 

Thirdly, the greater part of the whole apparatus 
may be left in its place ready for future employment, 
thus saving a considerable amount of trouble and time. 

Fourthly, the cutting of taper spirals can be effected 
by the aid of the universal joint, without any additional 
apparatus ; and 

Lastly, it enables the ellipse chuck to be used in 
conjunction with it, which combination renders some 
very beautiful work indeed; and, as the ellipse and 
spirals can be combined in no other way, it must be, as 
it is admitted, a very great improvement and advantage. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE SUEFACE SPIRAL. 

This is also an addition to the spiral apparatus, and is 
employed as a means of transferring the various spirals 
from the cylinder to the surface ; it is also necessary 
for the same operation on cones, when the apparatus is 
fitted to the front of the lathe-head. 

The apparatus (Fig. 170) consists of a cast-iron 
pedestal similar to the hand-rest for plain turning, but 
longer in the base, and is fixed to the lathe-bed, when 
required, in the same way, by a dovetail slide ; a steel 
stem is then fitted to the pedestal, on which is fixed a 
metal barrel holding a socket, on one side of which the 
change-wheels and pinions are fixed, and through which 
a long steel rod is fitted, similar to that already ex- 
plained ; on the end of the rod a collar is fixed, to which 
a mitre or round-edged wheel is attached, when required, 
to connect the movement of the slide-rest with that 
of the other wheels of the train, and consequently that 
of the mandrel. 

When setting up the apparatus, the rod should 



22 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

stand parallel to the lathe-bed and the wheels as re- 
quired, but generally speaking the mitre-wheel of 
thirty teeth is fixed to the rod, while that containing 
sixty teeth is attached to the end of the slide-rest 
screw, when it is placed at right angles to the lathe-bed, 
but when used for ornamenting cones the round-edged 
wheel and pinion are substituted. The rod having a 
longitudinal movement, the wheels may be geared, 
when the slide-rest is set at varying distances from the 
mandrel-nose, to suit the different depths of the chuck 
and material to be operated upon, while the transverse 
adjustment admits of work of large or small diameter 
being accommodated, and when these are finally and 
satisfactorily adjusted, the stem is fixed by the binding 
screw in the pedestal, and the point of the screw placed 
in the groove of the sliding-rod, thus retaining the 
various fittings in their several places. 

Fig. 170a illustrates a method designed by the 
author for effecting the same purpose as the surface 
spiral apparatus referred to; it will be observed that 
the mitre and roimd-edged wheels are entirely dis- 
pensed with, and the motion is obtained by the 
application of two double universal joints, one of 
which is attached to the rod A, which passes through 
the barrel in the pedestal, while the second, c, is 
fixed to the socket on the end of the main screw of 
the slide-rest, the two being connected by the socket 



THE SURFACE SPIRAL. 



23 



on each, secured by the screw D. By the aid of these 
joints the slide-rest may be set to any degree between 
the parallel and right angle. 




This comparatively simple arrangement works 
perfectly, and is now fitted to the lathes of many 
amateurs; it is less trouble to mount, and relieves 



24 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

the spiral apparatus of the inherent loss of time de- 
rived from the extra wheels; and further, the work 
produced by the different trains of wheels employed 




Fig. 170a. 

upon cylinders may be transferred to the surface, 
without differing in any way by the introduction of 
extra gearing. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE KECIPEOCATOE. 

This iEstrument affords the means of obtaining a still 
wider variation of effect, and it may also be considered 
a very important addition to the spiral apparatus. It 
can be applied to either the cylinder or surface with 
equal facility. It will be seen, by reference to the 
engraving (Fig. 171), that it is composed of two 
steel arms with circular ends, the short one, which 
has the series of holes drilled in it, is made to fit on 
the dividing chuck, and is attached there by the same 
nut and washer that hold the wheels ; the longer arm 
of the two is fitted to revolve on a metal bush with 
a plate on the front; the bush is made the same 
width as the pinions, ^ in. wide, and it will be 
observed that it has two holes bored through the 
face, which are marked A and B, the former having 
an eccentricity of ^g, while the latter has twice the 
amount. On the opposite side of the centre, the holes 
are made to fit on the double arbor, and are therefore 
also I in. in diameter. 

25 



THE RECIPROCATOK. 27 

At the opposite extremity of this arm a movable 
joint is arranged, the end being turned down and the 
latter fitted to it ; this is retained in its place by the 
point of a small screw fitting in a groove turned in 
the pin. The joint has an open slot, into which the 
arm with the holes passes freely, being connected by 
a milled head screw with a plain part fitting the hole. 

When adjusting the instrument for use, the follow- 
ing directions should be carried out. The short arm 
is placed on the dividing chuck and fixed by the 
circular nut, the long arm is then attached to the 
double arbor with a wheel in front of it, which must 
be selected to suit the work. For example, say the 
120 wheel, the aperture in which must be filled up 
with the metal bush, and both it and the arm fixed 
by the nut and washer ; the two arms are then con- 
nected by placing the pin through the hole that may 
be selected; the radial arm is then lowered to gear 
the 120 wheel with that on the slide-rest screw or 
socket, according to the manner in which the apparatus 
is fitted. 

Upon turning the handle of the slide-rest, it will 
be seen that the mandrel performs a backward and 
forward motion, while the tool or cutter in the slide- 
rest travels laterally the necessary length of the work 
to "be decorated, when it is arrested by a fiuting-stop 
on each side. 



28 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

The partial rotation of the mandrel in either 
direction, combined with the lateral traverse of the 
tool in the slide-rest, produces waved or undulated 
lines, which are varied by the alteration of the train 
of wheels ; and again, by the difference in the fixture 
of the two arms in relation one to the other, by the 
holes, which are figured 1 to 11, the latter denotement 
being nearest the axis of the mandrel. 

When the arm is placed on the arbor by the hole 
A, which has the smallest amount of eccentricity, and 
the second arm attached to it by hole 1, the least 
height of wave is the result, while with the eccen- 
tricity B on the arbor, and hole 11 employed, the 
greatest is obtained, the length of the wave being 
entirely governed by the wheels used iu the train, 
the effect of the curve produced is also much in- 
fluenced by the diameter of the material upon which 
it is cut. It will be useful to many amateurs to give 
a few of the different wheels that are available, and 
more generally employed to effect waves of given 
lengths : — For one of j2^, 18 on slide-rest with 36 on 
arbor ; for -^, 16 and 48 ; /g, 15 and 60 ; i%, 16 and 
96 ; j%, 15 and 120, etc., the smaller wheel being 
always placed on the slide-rest screw or socket, as 
before mentioned. 

To change the arm attached to the arbor from one 
eccentricity to the other, during the progress of the 



THE RECIPROCATOR. 29 

work, produces some very beautiful results, as the 
waved lines are cut in the reverse direction; but, 
at the same time, it is perhaps the most difficult 
operation to perform accurately, in consequence 
of the slide-rest screw requiring to remain with- 
out the least movement, while the eccentricity 
of the arm is adjusted. It will be seen that the 
face of the bush is divided at every quadrant, 
thus : -I- I I- X . 

If the eccentricity A is iixed to the arbor with •!• 
opposite the indicator, the wave will begin at the 
opposite side to what it wHl if the bush is turned 
round until the mark | be in the same position ; but 
if the arm is fixed to the arbor by eccentricity B, this 
will be reversed, in consequence of the two eccen- 
tricities being on the opposite sides of the centre of 
the bush. 

The relative positions of the various waves follow- 
ing each other round a cylinder or on a surface, are 
determined by the movement of the dividing chuck, 
in a similar manner to that in which numerous strands 
are cut with the spiral apparatus. 

Fig. 172 illustrates a considerable improvement 
in the reciprocator, by which its capabilities are 
greatly increased; the metal bush on which the arm 
works is enlarged to 3 in. in diameter, and through 
it four holes are bored to fit the arbor, in the same 



30 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

way as those in Fig. 171 ; but these, it will be seen, 
have their eccentricities extended to six, eight, ten, 
and twelve-tenths, by which the partial rotation of 
the mandrel is increased in each direction. But, so 
far, -the only difference resulting from this is, the 
increased depth of the wave; but the inventor of 
this improvement (Mr. Ashton) desired to create at 
the same time a greater length, in combination with 
the depth, which produces such extremely graceful 
curves, and, in order to effect this, it is essential that 
the lateral movement of the tool should be increased 
in equal, or even extended ratio, with the eccentricity. 
For this movement it is necessary to employ a second 
pair of wheels, which, in the instance of the spiral 
apparatus being fitted to the front of the lathe-head, 
are made to operate in an extra arm fitted across the 
end of the slide-rest, with the power of adjustment 
to suit different sized wheels ; but, when the spiral 
apparatus is fitted on the improved plan, the same 
result is obtained by employing the extra arbor (Fig. 
169b). This is much to be recommended for the 
purpose, and disposes of the extra arm on the 
slide-rest. 

Before entering upon the details of the manipu- 
lation of the apparatus contained in the preceding 
pages, it will be an advantage to have a table of the 
various wheels required to produce certain screws and 



THE RECIPROCATOR. 



31 



twists. The following is considered the most suitable 
for the purpose, and will be readily understood — the 
words mandrel, screw, and pitch signify the manner 
in which the wheels are geared, and the screw they 
produce : — 

Table of Pitches derived feom Single 
Gearing. 



MANDREL 


—144. 


MANDREL 


—120. 


MANDREL — 96. 


SCKEW. 


PITCH. 


SCRF.W. 


PITCH. 


SCREW. 


PITCH. 


120 ... 


8-33 


144 ... 


12-0 


144 ... 


15-0 


96 ... 


6-66 


96 ... 


8-0 


120 ... 


12-5 


72 ... 


50 


72 ... 


6-0 


72 ... 


7-5 


60 ... 


4-166 


60 ... 


50 


60 ... 


6-25 


53 ... 


3 68 


53 ... 


4-416 


53 ... 


5-52 


50 ... 


3-472 


50 ... 


4-166 


50 ... 


5-208 


48 ... 


3-33 


48 ... 


4-0 


48 ... 


5-0 


36 ... 


2-5 


36 ... 


3-0 


36 ... 


3-75 


24 ... 


1-66 


24 ... 


2-0 


24 ... 


2-5 


20 ... 


1-388 


20 ... 


1-66 


20 ... 


2-0833 


18 ... 


1-25 


18 ... 


1-5 


18 ... 


1-075 


16 ... 


1-11 


16 ... 


1-33 


16 ... 


1-66 


15 ... 


1-0416 


15 ... 


1-25 


15 ... 


1-5625 


MANBEBL — 72. 


MANDREL— 60. 


MANDREL — 53. 


SCKBW. 


PITCH. 


SCEEW. 


PITCH. 


SCKEW. 


PITCH. 


144 ... 


20-0 


144 ... 


24-0 


144 ... 


27-16 


120 ... 


16-66 


120 ... 


20-0 


120 ... 


22-64 


96 ... 


13-33 


96 ... 


16-0 


96 ... 


18-11 


60 ... 


8-33 


72 ... 


12-0 


72 ... 


13-58 


53 ... 


7-361 


53 ... 


8-8.S3 


60 ... 


11-32 


50 ... 


6-944 


50 ... 


8-33 


50 ... 


9-433 


48 ... 


6-66 


48 ... 


8-0 


48 ... 


9056 


36 ... 


5-0 


36 ... 


60 


36 ... 


6-792 


24 ... 


3-33 


24 ... 


4-0 


24 ... 


4-528 


20 ... 


2-77 


?0 ... 


3-33 


20 ... 


3-773 


18 ... 


2-5 


18 ... 


30 


18 ... 


3-396 


16 ... 


2-22 


16 ... 


2-66 


16 ... 


3-088 


15 ... 


2-0833 


15 ... 


2-5 


15 ... 


2-83 



32 



ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 



Table of Pitches derived from Single G-ba.eing- 
continihed. 



MANDBEL— 50. 


MANDKEL — 48. 


MANDREL— 86. 


SCREW. PITCH. 


SCREW. PITCH. 


SCREW, PITCH. 


144 ... 28-8 


144 . 


. 30-0 


144 ... 40-0 


120 ... 240 


120 . 


. 250 


120 


.. 33-33 


96 ... 19-2 


96 


. 20-0 


96 


.. 26-66 


72 ... 14-4 


72 . 


. 15-0 


72 


.. 20-0 


60 .. 12-0 


60 


. 12-5 


60 


.. 16-66 


53 ... 10-6 


53 . 


. 11-04 


53 


.. 14-72 


48 ... 9-6 


50 . 


. 10-417 


50 


.. 13-88 


36 ... 7'2 


36 . 


. 7-5 


48 


.. 13-33 


24 ... 4-8 


24 , 


. 5-0 


24 


.. 6-66 


20 ... 4-0 


20 . 


. 4-166 


20 


.. 5-55 


18 . 3-6 


18 . 


. 3-6 


18 


.. 5-0 


16 ... .3-2 


16 


. 3-33 


16 


.. 4-44 


15 ... 30 


15 . 


. 3125 


15 


.. 4166 



This table, it will be seen, bears no reference to 
the double gearing, -which employs four -wheels instead 
of two. It is, therefore, necessary to indicate this 
by a second table, which is practically the most 
useful in following the art of ornamental turning, 
as it is the longer twists that are generally used, and 
are the most decorative. The expressions in this 
case bear the same reference to the arrangement of 
the wheels as in the previous table, the double arbor 
being always used in place of the single one. 
When the apparatus is fitted to the back of the 
lathe-head, the reference to the screw bears the same 
relation to the socket, which has a corresponding 
influence, and it is connected to the slide-rest by the 
universal point. 



THE RECIPROCATOR. 33 

Table of Pitches obtained by Double Gearing. 



MANDREL. 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 

144 ... 



ARBOR. 

24 
60 

15 
30 

72 
60 

15 
30 

24 

72 

36 

60 

15 

60 

16 
17 

72 
120 

15 

60 

15 
30 

36 
120 

16 
60 



SCREW. PITCH. 

. 72 ... 0'5 

,. 48 ... 0-6 

. 16 ... 075 

,. 36 ... 0-8 

. 48 ... 0-9 

. 24 ... 10 

. 48 ... 1-20 

. 48 ... 1-35 

. 16 ... 1-5 

. 36 ... 1-6 

. 16 ... 1-8 

. 24 ... 20 



... 20 



2-7 



MANDREL. 


ARBOR. 


144 .. 


. 36 




120 ... 


144 .. 


. 15 




60 ... 


144 .. 


15 




60 ... 


144 .. 


30 




120 ... 


144 .. 


24 




120 ... 


144 .. 


24 




120 ... 


144 .. 


24 




120 ... 


144 .. 


20 




120 ... 


144 .. 


20 




120 ... 


144 .. 


18 




120 ... 


144 .. 


18 




120 ... 


144 .. 


16 




120 ... 



SCREW. 


PITCH, 


16 .. 


. 30 


18 .. 


. 3-2 


16 .. 


. 3-6 


15 .. 


. 3-48 


18 . 


. 4-0 


16 . 


. 4-5 


15 . 


. 4-8 


16 .. 


. 5-4 


15 . 


. 5-76 


16 .. 


. 60 


15 .. 


. 6-4 



15 ... 7-2 



VOL. Ill, 



CHAPTER V. 

MANIPULATION OF THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 

This apparatus, although capable of producing screws 
of various pitches, from more than fifty threads in the 
inch to one complete turn in 7 in., is seldom em- 
ployed for the purpose of cutting fine threads to be 
used as screws, and it differs from the slide and screw- 
cutting lathe only in the manner in which it is 
employed, the principle of connecting the guide-screw 
to the mandrel by a train of wheels being maintained. 

As it is now to be considered, the mandrel is con- 
nected with the main screw of the slide-rest, and as 
thus arranged, it is in theory exactly the same as the 
slide-lathe, but is more suitable for ornamental turning, 
and the production of spirals of long pitches, which are 
generally known as Elizabethan twists. By reference 
to the illustration, Fig. 168a, it will be seen that to 
make the necessary connection between the mandrel 
and slide-rest, a wheel is placed on the dividing chuck, 
and gears into another on the double arbor, a larger 
wheel on the same gearing to one on the end of the 

34 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 35 

main screw of the slide-rest; a great number of 
different pitches may be cut with a train of three 
wheels only, geared in one plane, in which case the 
intermediate wheel bears no influence over the screw 
produced, but is simply a means of communicating 
motion from the wheel on the chuck to that on the 
slide-rest; the screw or pitch produced being depen- 
■ dent upon the multiplication or division of the main 
screw of the slide-rest, by the fraction given in the 
number of teeth in the two wheels — that on the chuck 
and on the slide-rest screw. 

It will be. seen at once that should two wheels 
only be used, the slide-rest having a right-hand screw, 
the twist produced will be a left-hand one, caused by 
the two wheels turning in opposite direction, therefore 
the intermediate wheel is necessary to the production 
of a reverse direction, as it guides the wheel on the 
mandrel and that on the screw of the slide-rest in the 
same direction, the result being a right-hand twist. 

Spirals of both characters, however, are largely 
used in the practice of ornamental turning ; and when 
it is necessary to change the direction from one to the 
other, the intermediate arbor with the 30 wheel is 
interposed between the wheel on the chuck and that 
on the arbor, and this, it may be repeated, does not 
alter the pitch, but simply changes the direction of the 
traverse of the slide, and in the case of large diameters, 



36 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

also facilitates the movement of the slide-rest further 
from the axis of the mandrel, which is often necessary. 
At times, however, even a greater range is required, in 
which case a wheel of larger size is placed upon the 
single arbor, and takes the place of that referred to. 
This latter arrangement is seldom required, from the 
fact that double gearing is mostly used for ornamental 
purposes, as the longer twists are much preferred, and 
the most suitable for such work. 

Double gearing is again illustrated by the engraving. 
Fig. 169, which shows the apparatus as now fitted on 
the new principle, at the rear of the headstock; it 
employs four wheels, as shown in Table 2 ; and, as 
seen in the engraving, the wheels are 144 on the 
dividing chuck, gearing to a pinion of 16 on the double 
arbor, a wheel of 120 teeth being on the same, which 
gears into a pinion of 15 on the socket, which is the 
same as when placed on the slide-rest screw; if the 
apparatus is fitted to the front, as in Pig. 168a, it will 
be observed, by reference to Table 2, that these wheels 
produce a twist of 7"2. Spirals consisting of more 
than two turns in 1 in. always necessitate the use of 
the double arbor, and any spiral beyond one turn in 
7 in. involves the use of a third pair of wheels, which 
are usually mounted on the surface spiral apparatus, 
and connected by a pair of round-edged wheels of 30 
and 60 teeth ; but when the apparatus is fitted at the 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 39 

back of the lathe-head, the iatrodiiction of the double 
arbor. Fig. 170a, renders the surface spu'al apparatus 
unnecessary for this purpose. 

As seen by the engraving, the third pair of wheels 
is fitted on a steel arbor, which revolves in a socket, 
fitted to slide in a metal frame, which is fixed to the 
boss on the lower arm that carries the connecting-rod. 
The two extra wheels thus placed at the end of the 
train have the effect of producing a twist twice as 
long as that' obtained without their addition, and as 
it can be taken off and refixed without delay, it forms 
a most important improvement to the apparatus. 
Spirals used in ornamental turning are generally of a 
multiple nature, such, for instance, as 2, 4, 6, 8, or any 
other number of grooves or strands being cut round 
the cylinder or form that is being ornamented, and it 
is for this purpose that the dividing chuck is employed ; 
the dial-plate on the pulley cannot be used, from the fact 
that it is always rotating during the process of cutting 
the work. The height of the centre of the tool must 
also claim great attention from the operator ; the 
slightest deviation from accuracy in this respect will 
entirely alter the result of the pattern produced, and if 
not adjusted precisely to the axis of the mandrel, more 
material will be, removed from one side than the 
other. 

The tool should always be carried through the cut 



40 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

in one direction, it does not matter in which ; but as a 
rule a right-hand twist is cut from right to left, and a 
left-hand from left to right. The way in which the 
tool is made to revolve must depend somewhat upon 
the grain of the material to be cut ; sometimes it will 
cut more smoothly one way than the other. In all 
such spirals as those illustrated in Plate 10, the 
apparatus is worked by the winch-handle on the 
slide-rest screw, the driving-band to the pulley being 
of course removed. The necessity for always making 
the cut in the same direction is caused by the un- 
avoidable back- lash in each of the several wheels when 
geared, and it will be evident that when the handle 
is turned the freedom between the wheels will allow 
the tool to move laterally before the work begins to 
rotate, thus causing it to cut more on one side than the 
other ; this, however, may not be fatal to the work, 
and, if the cut is carried through in both directions 
with a step-drill, the result will be, that the recess 
so cut is made wider than the diameter of the drQl, 
and, provided the strand is cut right through at each 
end, it will not at times be a disadvantage, but where 
the spirals terminate within the cylinder at each end, 
through the traverse being arrested by the fluting- 
stops, every successive cut must be taken in the one 
direction only, otherwise the circular ends will be 
distorted. 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 41 

In such spirals as Fig. 4, Plate 10, where the 
universal cutter is used, with a double-angle tool, 
the cut can only be made in the one direction, for the 
reason, that if the cut is increased in width, the figure 
of the tool would be lost, and a space left at the 
bottom, instead of the actual shape of the tool. 

When the universal cutter is thus employed, it is 
necessary that the tool should be set to an angle, so 
that the plane of revolution will agree with the pitch 
of the screw or spiral it is desired to cut. The amount 
of angle required to be given to the tool is easily 
decided by trial, as it will be seen when a fine cut 
is first taken if it is correct; the angles, however, 
which are given for the following examples will be 
sufficient to direct the attention in this respect. When 
a variety of cutters is used, the instrument must be 
retained at the same angle throughout the work, and 
one important point is to always set the tool back to 
the same radius, should it have to be removed for 
sharpening ; this is decided in the same way as ex- 
plained with regard to this instrument when used for 
the pattern illustrated on Plate 3. 

The production of spirals by this apparatus may be 
extended to a very large degree, and the variety of 
patterns to be so turned is practically unlimited. A 
very useful and decorative style is found in hollow 
spirals, which may be filled with material of a different 



42 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

substance and colour. An ivory exterior, with its 
strands twisting gracefully round a blackwood interior, 
forms a very elegant combination. 

A farther development is derived from an ivory 
cylinder being bored out to a tube ; it is then carefully 
fitted to a boxwood plug and cut through with a long 
twist ; a second ivory tube is then fitted accurately to 
it. This agaia is fitted on a plug and cut to the same 
pitch, but in the reverse direction, the result being that 
two spirals in opposite directions are combined. 

Spirals may also be cut with a compound twist, that 
is, one within the other, leaving a solid pillar through 
the centre. This form is illustrated by Plate 11, for 
the privilege of publishing which the author is indebted 
to Captain E. Pudsey Dawson, who has made this 
particular style of turning a considerable study. The 
settings for this wiU be explained as the subject is 
approached. 

To adjust the spiral apparatiis for such work as the 
examples contained in Plate 10, the radial arm is first 
placed in the circular groove at the back of the lathe- 
head ; and it may be here mentioned that all references 
to the various adjustments will point to it as arranged 
in this way. The radial arm fixed, the wheel of 144 
teeth is placed on the dividing chuck and fixed by its 
circular nut and washer; the double arbor is then 
placed in the oblong slot, and a pinion of 16 teeth, 




MfenawH 



mmt^Bmm 



"iPfVHPBM 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 45 

with a wheel of 120 teeth attached in front of it ; the 
arbor is then moved in the slot till the pinion of 16 
teeth gears with the 144 on the chuck; and they 
should be so placed as to work quite freely, to avoid 
any likelihood of an irregular motion ; a pinion of 15 
teeth is then fixed to the socket through which the 
connecting-rod passes, and the radial arm lowered till 
the 120 wheel gears with it. This combination, as 
before stated, gives a twist of one turn in 7 in. 
approximately. The engraving. Fig. 169, shows the 
way in which this is arranged. The connection is then 
made to the slide-rest by the rod being moved laterally 
till the socket of the universal joint will pass on to the 
end of the main screw, to which it is fixed. In this 
way the apparatus was arranged to cut Fig. 1, Plate 
10, the material being first turned to a cylinder ; the 
drilling instrument is then placed in the tool-box of 
the slide-rest, having in it a bold step-drill, the divid- 
ing chuck set at 96 on the worm-wheel, and the cut 
made from the popit-head towards the chuck. The 
worm-wheel of the chuck is then moved twelve divi- 
sions for each consecutive cut. This being a deeply 
cut pattern, it requires about three separate cuts, and 
for a finishing one, the drill should be taken out and 
carefully sharpened. Although a very simple example, 
it is a most effective style of ornamentation, and one 
that may be usefully employed for a variety of work.- 



46 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

For Fig. 2 the same wheels were employed, the 
universal cutter (Fig. 122) being used instead of the 
drilling instrument ; and in order that the tool should 
follow the same plane as the twist, the cutter was set 
over to the right 30° ; a round-nosed tool, -^^^ in. wide, 
was used to excavate the recess in the first place. 
The dividing chuck in this case is adjusted con- 
secutively to 96, 24, 48, and 72, thus leaving four 
strands. Haviag removed as much of the superfluous 
material as desired, a square-end tool takes the place 
of the round-nosed one, by which the bottom of the 
recess is made flat instead of concave. The drilling 
instrument is then used in place of the universal cut- 
ter, and in exactly the same way as for Fig. 1 ; the 
universal cutter is then again employed to round the 
top of the strand, a bead-tool replacing that previously 
used ; the angle of the instrument being unchanged. 

Fig. 3 represents the difference in effect obtained by 
using the reversing arbor with a 30 wheel on it. 
The material was first turned to a true cylinder, the 
same train of wheels arranged, and the universal 
cutter, with a double-angle tool of 50°, set to the same 
angle of 30° for the right-hand twist, the dividing 
chuck set at 96, and a cut made at every six. The 
penetration of the tool is governed by the precise 
figure required. Having cut all round in this way, 
the radial arm is raised without moving the wheel on 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 47 

the socket, the double arbor moved away from the 144 
wheel, and the reversing arbor interposed ; the arm is 
then lowered to again gear the 120 wheel with the 15 
on the socket. The universal cutter is set over to the 
other side 30°, and the face of the tool reversed; the 
cuts are then made from left to right, or in the opposite 
direction to those previously cut, the result being as 
seen, a series of diamond-shaped facets. 

The succeeding figure affords an opportunity of 
illustrating the advantage derived by using the extra 
arbor (Fig. 169b), which is for the purpose of making 
the twist or spirals of an increased length; the most 
that can be achieved with the wheels as already 
described, is one turn in 7 in. approximately ; with the 
extra arbor the twist can be doubled, and by replacing 
the 30 wheel by one of 15, a still further elongation 
results. There is a very great advantage in being able 
to attain this end, as the extra length of twist gives a 
very beautiful appearance to the work. 

Fig. 4 was cut with the following arrangement : the 
wheels being 144, gearing to 16 on double arbor, the 
120 on same gearing to a 30 on the extra arbor, while 
the 60 on the same spindle is geared to the 15 on the 
socket. This combination gives a twist of about one 
turn in 15 in., the universal cutter is set over to 15° on 
the right, and the cut made from right to left with a 
double-angle tool of 50°. The wheels thus arranged 



48 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

are even in number, and cause the spiral to be left- 
hand. To obviate this, the reversing arbor, with the 
30 wheel, is interposed between the 144 on chuck 
and the 16 on the double arbor, thereby reversing the 
direction, with the result seen in Fig. 4. 

Fig. 5 shows the result of combining the spiral 
apparatus with the ellipse chuck, from which very- 
beautiful results are obtained. That now Ulustrated 
is quite a simple example, but serves to establish the 
fact that the two can be combined. 

Plate 11 represents a distiuct style of spiral turning. 
It will be seen that the stem or pillar has two series of 
spiral strands, one inside the other, but, at the same 
time, cut from the solid ivory. This may be termed 
compound spiral turning, and is now much practised 
by amateur turners. The length of the specimen 
under notice is 5 in., and the diameter \\ in. ; the 
wheels employed in the train to produce the twist are, 
124 on the chuck, 20 and 120 on the double arbor, and 
16 on the socket. 

The ivory for such a subject should be carefully 
selected, with the grain as straight as possible; it is 
then chucked in a wood or metal chuck, preferably the 
latter for such a purpose, and turned to a true cylinder. 
If the apparatus is fitted to the front of the lathe-head, 
the ivory must be turned true when the chuck holding 
it is placed on the spiral dividing chuck ; the necessity 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 49 

for this affords a further opportunity of pointing out 
the advantage of the whole of the apparatus being fitted 
to the back, in which case the work is turned on the 
mandrel-nose, the same as for any ordinary work, thus 
saving the unnecessary length of the chuck. 

It must be assumed that the apparatus is iitted on 
the improved plan, therefore the work is turned to a 
perfectly true cylinder on the mandrel-nose, and then 
highly polished. A round-nosed fiuting-drill, in size 
suitable to the space required between the strands of 
the spirals, is selected. The slide-rest must now be 
raised above the centre by the elevating ring, till the 
thickness of the strand is determined. This done, take 
a deep cut at 96, 24, 48, 72. It is an advantage to 
raise the point of the drUl slightly, by a thin piece of 
packing under the front of the stem in the tool-box; 
this enables the drill to cut through the ivory with 
greater facility. Should it be desired to ornament the 
exterior of the strands, it must be done before the drill 
is carried completely through, because when the 
strands are released, they are too delicate to admit of 
its being done, even to the extent of the plain flute 
seen in the illustration, as the solid material which 
supports them has been removed by the drill, and the 
la1<ter, prior to passing through, should be keenly 
sharpened. This process having been repeated four 
consecutive times, the first series of spirals is finished, 

VOL. III. E 



5o ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

The solid cylinder left in the centre by the cutting 
of the first series must now be operated upon in a 
similar way. Having selected a small drill suitable to 
the diameter of the cylinder, the slide-rest is lowered 
till the point of the drill is exactly between the strands 
first cut. This is more accurately adjusted by means of 
the tangent-wheel of the dividing chuck ; and now that 
the ratchet-wheel is obsolete, there is no necessity for 
releasing and resetting the radial arm to assist in the 
adjustment. When thus arranged, it is only to proceed 
as before, the result being a small cylinder left within 
the second series of strands. The drill should be 
driven at a quick and regular speed, and the lateral 
traverse of the slide be as even as possible; it is far 
better to use a series of different sized drills to follow 
each other. Work of this character, but of greater 
length, will require the aid of a slender guide to 
support it as the tool traverses, but with care 6-in. 
lengths may be safely executed. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE SPlfiAL APPAEATUS AND ELLIPSE CHUCK IN 
COMBINATION. 

Plate 11a illustrates a further application of the spiral 
apparatus, used in combination with the ellipse chuck, 
and is one of the great advantages derived from the 
present arrangement of the apparatus, by which varied 
and beautiful work can be displayed. The body of the 
casket was turned from a large hollow piece of a tusk 
of ivory, the sliding-ring of the chuck being set out to 
suit its proportions, without waste ; it was then turned 
out inside, and afterwards chucked on a boxwood plug 
its entire length, well fitted, and glued. 

The first process is to turn it to a perfectly true 
elliptic cylinder ; a large round-nosed drill is then used 
■to excavate a considerable depth before the figure is 
attempted ; the wheels used are those which produce a 
long twist, viz. 144, 16, 120, and 15. The ellipse 
■chuck is set vertically, the drill accurately to the centre 
'of the lathe axis, the first cut made at 96 of the 

5« 



52 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

dividing-wlieel, and repeated at every 12, by which 
eight consecutive flutes result. 

An ogee moulding-drill now replaces the routing- 
drill, to shape the figure on each side of the separate 
strands ; these cut, a small moulding-drill is carried in 
deeper at the bottom of the recess. To cut cleanly a 
depth similar to this example, requires a number of 
cuts, and the tool to be sharpened many times ; in all 
such work, the drill should be most carefully looked to 
for the finishing cut. 

The eight moulded strands being finished so far, the 
top of each alternate one is cut to a bead, and for 
this purpose the universal cutter (Fig. 122), with an 
astragal bead-tool j^^q in. wide, is employed, and the 
instrument set to an angle of 30°; when the four 
strands of this character are cut, the tool is changed for 
a round-nosed one, with which the four iatermediate 
mouldings are cut. Deep and bold cutting of this 
nature may be ultimately polished with a soft lamb's- 
wool buff running at a high speed, which gives a 
beautiful finish to it. 

The base and top are separate pieces, taken from a 
tusk of large dimensions ; the former is cut out each 
side with a round-nosed drill; the latter has a deep 
eccentric pattern cut on the surface, and a hollow 
underneath to correspond with the bottom. The lid, 
which is hinged at the back, is composed of a series of 



THE SPIRAL APPARATUS. 53 

moulded and plain parts, the finial being an elliptic 
knob. Caskets of this stamp should be lined inside 
with satin; it is a great improvement, and at times 
assists in hiding from view a bad place in the material, 
to remove which would reduce it to a size unsuitable 
for its purpose. 



CHAPTER VII. 

EXAMPLES OF SUKFACE SPIRALS AND EECIPEOCATOK. 

Plate 12 illustrates a few patterns produced on sur- 
faces by interposing the apparatus (Fig. 170), by which 
the motion is conducted to the slide-rest when set 
transversely across the lathe-bed; and if the spiral 
apparatus is fitted to the front, it is also necessary, as 
already intimated, to the application of it to cut work 
upon cones ; but with the apparatus fitted at the back 
of the lathe, illustrated in Fig. 169, this is avoided, as 
the universal joint allows all such work to be done 
better without it. Curved surfaces are also to be 
decorated with the slide-rest in this position, when the 
curvilinear apparatus is used, and by this very beautiful 
results are obtained ; the revolving instruments are all 
applicable to this as well as cylindrical forms. The 
strands may be also cut in either, or both directions, 
and, when crossed and cut with a step-drill, a series of 
gradually decreasing pyramidal points renders the effect 
most decorative and interesting. To attempt to describe 
even a limited number of results to be obtained would 

54 



SURFACE SPIRALS AND RECIPROCATOR. 57 

occupy a book in itself, but those now shown in the 
plates will serve to explain the way in which the 
apparatus is applied, and to demonstrate the more 
simple results, which will lead to far greater attain- 
ments, and, it is needless to say, the variations may be 
carried on ad infinittvm. 

Fig. 1 is quite a primary application of the ap- 
paratus. The wheels employed were 144 on dividing 
chuck gearing, into 16 on double arbor, 120 on the 
same, running into 15 on the socket, thus producing 
the twist. The surface spiral apparatus (Fig. 170) is 
then placed so that the end of the socket is connected 
to the universal joint ; the mitre-wheel with 30 teeth is 
fixed on the end of the sliding-rod and geared to the 
60 wheel of the same form, which is fixed to the end 
of the slide-rest screw. 

The universal cutter (Fig. 122) was then placed in 
the tool-box of the slide-rest, and turned to 90° on 
the right, to operate as a vertical cutter, and a round- 
nosed tool placed at a radius of -j*^, the dividing-wheel 
of chuck set to 96, and a cut made at every 12, the 
penetration being about ^q. Having cut thus eight 
times, the wheel of the chuck is moved six divisions, 
the radius of the tool reduced -^q, and the depth of cut 
decreased, so that the second series of cuts takes place 
between those already executed ; the fiuting-stop is 
fixed on the right side of the tool-box to arrest the 



5S ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

tool at the centre, the outs being made from the margin 
to that point. 

Fig. 2 is cut with a step-drill in place of the vertical 
cutter, and being, as will be observed, of a longer twist, 
the extra arbor (Fig. 169b) is employed ; therefore the 
train of wheels is as follows : 144 on chuck, 120 and 
16 on double arbor, the 144 gearing into the 18, the 
120 into the 30 on the extra arbor, the 60, which is on 
the same spindle, gearing to the 15 on the socket. The 
mitre-wheels are the same in every respect. The step- 
drill is then inserted to the depth required, and arrested 
short of the centre by the fluting-stop, so that at that 
point the figure is represented by a pyramid, resulting 
from the shape of the drill. In this example there are 
sixteen cuts, every sixth division of the wheel being 
employed, the gradual diminution of the strands towards 
the decreasing diameter being very effective. 

Fig. 3 represents the twist or strands cut in both 
directions, the same drill being used. This particular 
result would lead any one to suppose that it was pro- 
duced by other means, as the crossing of the spirals at 
various points so destroys the continuous line that the 
effect is quite altered ; it may also be varied in many 
ways. The wheels to give this result are very different 
to those employed for the two previous subjects ; the 
extra arbor (Fig. 169b) is removed, and those used are 
144 on the chuck, gearing to 18 on arbor, 120 on 



SURFACE SPIRALS AND RECIPROCATOR. 59 

the same, gearing to 72 on the socket, in place of 
the 15. 

The right-hand spiral is iirst cut from the margin 
towards the centre, and arrested about j^o on the left 
side by the fluting-stop ; the wheel of the chuck is then 
moved from 96 to 48, which is the opposite, or half of 
the entire revolution ; the second cut is then made. The 
slide-rest is returned to the margin, the radial arm 
raised, and the intermediate or reversing arbor intro- 
duced between the 144 and 18 ; the arm is then 
lowered to gear the 120 and 72, and the two cuts 
repeated in- the opposite direction, for which the wheel 
on the chuck is set to 24 and 72 respectively. A very 
distinct figure is the result of this arrangement, and 
when worked out on large diameters the effect is much 
improved. All such work may be cut from the centre 
and stopped at the margin, if for any reason it is 
found preferable to do so, for which it is only necessary 
to place the second fluting-stop to operate on the 
opposite side of the tool-box. Particular attention 
must be given to the reduction in the loss of time 
caused by the freedom inherent to so many wheels in 
gear at the same time. The correct way to overcome 
this is, when the tool is returned to the starting-point, 
no matter in what direction it is (although from margin 
to centre is generally most suitable), it should be 
traversed past that point and returned to it, the number 



6o ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

of divisions on the micrometer necessary for the pur- 
pose being noted, and the division at which the reading 
line points when so returned will be the position at 
which the drill or cutter is to be inserted for each 
succeeding cut. When the terminal point is reached, 
care must be exercised that no portion of the return 
journey is commenced until the tool is withdrawn 
from the work. 

Fig. 4 displays a still further advance in this class 
of surface spiral decoration ; the train of wheels again 
differs, inasmuch as the extra arbor (Fig. 169b) is 
again employed to increase the length of the twist, 
the train consisting of the following wheels : 144 on 
the chuck to 18, 120 to 30 on the extra arbor, 60 on 
the same gearing to 15 on the socket, the connection 
to the slide-rest transversely being the same. The 
ivory is first chucked in a boxwood chuck and by 
plain turning carefully surfaced, then, with a shoot 
parting tool ^00 ^^- wide, a series of incisions is made, 
the first nearest the margin, and about the width of 
the tool from that point; the depth of the cut is 
arranged according to the substance of the material 
and the style of decoration desired. When the first 
incision is thus made, the stop-screw must be adjusted, 
and for each successive cut it must be carefully brought 
to precisely the same place by the guide-screw; the 
tool is then moved twice its own width, which will 



SURFACE SPIRALS AND RECIPROCATOR. 6i 

be one turn of the main screw, and the second cut 
made; the same process is repeated throughout the 
distance required. The ultimate beauty of the work, 
when cut on the other side, depends entirely upon the 
accuracy of these incisions, and too much care cannot 
be exercised in the production of them. 

The work must now be re-chucked, and, when 
preparing such a subject for this process, the periphery 
should be turned slightly taper to facilitate this object. 
A well-seasoned boxwood chuck is the best for the 
purpose ; it should be turned out to fit the work as 
accurately as possible, and the bottom left perfectly 
flat and true ; the work is then gently tapped into it, 
against the inner surface, until by the sound it is 
proved to touch it at every part. As a rule, all work 
held in a chuck of this kind should not touch the 
bottom of the chuck, but for this particular purpose 
it is necessary, as the work to be cut on the front 
must be absolutely true to that already executed, 
and the close contact of the two true surfaces is the 
safest means to adopt. Thus held, the material is 
turned to the desired thickness between the bottom 
of the recesses in the back, and the surface to remain 
uncut. 

To cut the front, in this instance, a large round- 
nosed drill (Fig. 127) was first employed, and the 
superfluous material cleared away at every quadrant 



62 ORNAMENTAL TURMIN6. 

of the wheel of the dividing chuck, thus— 96, 24, 48, 72; 
a drill with a square end was then used to finish the 
surface, and to just expose the cuts in the back, but 
not deeper than is necessary for this, or the excellence 
of the work is destroyed. An ogee moulding tool 
with a fillet is then used to shape the projections 
that now stand on the top of a series of rings; the 
material having been removed to such an extent, the 
moulding-tool will not reach the figure, therefore 
the part to be shaped must be brought in contact 
with it by turning the tangent-screw of the dividing 
chuck sufficiently to obtain the necessary depth to 
complete the figure, when each side of the four pro- 
jections may be finished. Before any alteration is 
made, the number of divisions that the wheel is moved 
from the original zero should be noticed, and the 
wheel then moved to exactly the corresponding num- 
ber on the opposite side, so that the other side of the 
figure may be treated in the same way; the drill is 
then moved by the screw of the slide-rest to present 
it to the outer diameter, the same depth of course 
being maintained. When the drUl is advanced, the- 
work is slowly rotated by hand, or by the tangent- 
screw and worm-wheel of the segment apparatus;, 
this completes the shaping of the projections left om 
the surface, and it will be seen that, from the com- 
bination of the spiral line and the circular one, the 



SURFACE SPIRALS AND RECIPROCATOR. 63 

points all mitre at different angles, but correctly, and 
render the effect pleasing for many purposes. 

Fig. 5, Plate 12, illustrates the result of employing 
the reciprocator in connection with the spiral appa- 
ratus, as explained in the details of the instruments 
(Figs. 171 and 172). To produce the figure as seen, 
the reciprocator (Fig. 171) was placed on the double 
arbor by eccentricity B, the largest amount, a wheel of 
120 in front of it, geared to one of 18 on the socket; 
the arm on the chuck was then fixed to that on the 
arbor by the first hole, and a step-drill used to cut 
the figure. The gradual tapering of the waved line 
gives very excellent results, and may be varied in a 
great number of ways. 

Fig. 6 represents a few of the variations to be ob- 
tained, and the manner in which the different settings 
are arranged to produce the figures, as seen in the 
illustration. As there are seven distinct classes of 
wave on this one disc, they are numbered conse- 
cutively from 1 to 7. 

No. 1 is produced by a train of wheels consisting 
of 144 on the double arbor, to which the reciprocator 
is also attached by its eccentricity A, the lesser amount; 
the 144 is geared to a 15 wheel on the socket, and 
the arm on the dividing chuck is fixed to that on the 
arbor by hole 1, that furthest from the chuck. The 
line is cut with a small round-nosed drill, and as they 



64 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

are simple illustrations of the difference in the curve, 
resulting in each case from a re-arrangement of the 
apparatus, it is not necessary, in fact, it is preferable 
not, to use a figured drill. It will be seen that the 
result in this instance is a line with a slight wave, 
deeper, as in all work thus executed on the face, at 
the larger diameter, and gradually decreasing in depth 
towards the centre. 

No. 2 differs, inasmuch as the wave is deeper; the 
same wheels were used, and the only change required 
is to attach the arm on the arbor by the eccentricity B, 
or the largest amount, which causes the mandrel to 
move a greater distance in its partial rotation ; the 
wheels being the same as those for No. 1, the length of 
the wave is the same, but the extended movement of 
the mandrel increases the depth. 

No. 3 again employs the same wheels and corre- 
sponding eccentricity, but the arms are joined by hole 8 
on the short arm ; this simple alteration again extends 
the rotation of the mandrel, and creates a still further 
depth of wave. 

No. 4, which, it will be seen, has increased depth of 
wave, and decrease in length, by which the number of 
waves is multiplied in a corresponding distance is 
obtained by the same eccentricity and the correspondinc 
fixture of the two arms ; but the wheels are both 
diffeieut — 96 on the arbor gearing to 15 on the socket 



SURFACE SPIRALS AND RECIPROCATOR. 65 

which lessens the proportional traverse of the slide to 
the semi-rotation of the mandrel. 

No. 5, it will be observed, bears an extremely 
distinct appearance, which is the result of employing a 
wheel of 48 in the place of the 15, and attaching the 
arms by hole 1 on the short one, the eccentricity b 
being the same ; thus a further increase in the number 
of waves is the result. 

ISo. 6 is a further variety, and to effect this par- 
ticular pattern the larger reciprocator. Fig. 172, takes 
the place of the smaller, being placed on the arbor by 
the hole which gives an eccentricity of ^q, the arm 
attached by hole 1, the wheels being 144 on arbor to 
20 on socket, thus a similar number of waves in a 
corresponding given length, as N"o. 4, is the result, but 
of a considerably greater depth ; and by removing the 
short arm and attaching it by hole 8 in the short arm, 
the effect is as seen in the waved line ISTo. 7, which is 
of further increased depth only, and represents a figure, 
considerably altered in appearance, although of the 
same description. These few examples are sufficient to 
indicate the innumerable variations that may be made 
with comparatively simple alterations, and will also 
show clearly the manner in which the reciprocator is 
employed for figures to be produced on the surface. 
The motion is conducted to the slide-rest in each case 
by the mitre-wheel of 60 thereon, being geared to the 
VOL. III. P 



65 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

30 on the sliding-rod of the surface spkal apparatus ; 
or the newly designed double joint (Fig. 170a) may be 
substituted. 

We now come to the same instrument employed 
upon the cylinder, dispensing altogether with the 
intermediate connecting apparatus. The slide-rest in 
this case is set parallel with the lathe-bed, and con- 
nected by the universal joint in the same way as for 
spiral turning, and all the waved lines previously 
described, as executed upon the surface, may, with 
equal facility, be transferred to the cylinder. 

The two examples seen on Fig. 7, and numbered 1 
and 2, will suffice to establish this fact ; and as more 
elegant curves are produced by extended eccentricity 
and quick traverse of tool laterally, the larger instru- 
ment (Fig. 172) was used in conjunction with the extra 
arbor (Fig. 169b), thus employing four wheels instead of 
two, so that the lateral traverse of the slide-rest is 
increased beyond what it is when only two are used. 
To cut the line No. I, Fig. 7, the eccentricity of 

jSy is employed, the wheels being 144 on arbor geared 
to 30 on intermediate arbor, the 60 on latter being 

placed in gear with a 15 on the socket, and the arms 

attached by hole 8. . 

No. 2 of these examples is the result of the same 

wheels and eccentricity, but with the arms attached by 

hole 1 in the short arm ; by which means the partial 



SURFACE SPIRALS AND RECIPROCATOR. 67 

totation of the mandrel is decreased, and a longer wave 
is obtained. Decorations of this kind are most useful 
for such subjects as whip-handles, candlesticks, etc., and 
a large variety of ornaments. They may be cut in both 
directions by adjusting the work to the opposite side, 
as referred to in the description of the instruments. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

IVOEY CANDELABEA. 

The preliminary proceedings for a subject of this kind 
will consist of a careful selection of the ivory, which 
should be matched in grain and colour as nearly as 
possible ; it is also advisable to have a rough sketch at 
hand, so that the proportion of the design may be more 
clearly and easily worked up. It has no doubt been 
observed by many turners that at times a vast deal of 
beautiful cutting is executed upon a piece of work 
entirely out of proportion, and thereby thrown away. 
Should the candelabra, Plate 13, be considered worthy 
of reproduction, the following details of its construction 
will, it is hoped, be of assistance in carrying it out. 

The base is made from a piece of ivory 4^ in. in 
diameter and If in. thick. This was first held in a 
universal chuck, and turned to a true circle inside, 
sufficient only to increase the inside of the hollow in the 
ivory to a circle, and by this it is again chucked on a 
boxwood plug, to which "it is glued ; the latter is not 
absolutely necessary, as there is not a great deal of 

68 



IVORY CANDELABRA. 69 

work to be done to this part. The base is left \ ir. 
thick ; it is then reduced as far as the hollow, when it 
is again carried in square, and the front turned to an 
angle, the slide-rest for the latter purpose being set 30°. 

Having shaped this part so far by following the 
design from the illustration, the slide-rest is returned 
to its original position parallel with the lathe-bed, and 
the universal cutter (Fig. 122) placed in it with a 
double-angle tool of 55°, the 120 division used, the 
tool penetrated at every hole, and deep enough to bring 
the points iTp sharp. The instrument is then set over 
to operate as a vertical cutter, using a tool (Fig. 109) 
which, it will be seen, admits of the cut being carried 
close up to the shoulder, which could not be effected 
with either of the other instruments, without extending 
the radius of the tool beyond what is required. The 
diameter of that part to be so ornamented is 3 J in., and 
twenty-four consecutive cuts are made ; the slide-rest 
is then placed at the same angle at which it turned the 
plain form, and a corresponding number of cuts made, 
only just sufficiently deep to bring the terminal points 
in a line with those previously cut on the edge. By 
using a very keenly sharpened tool, these parts may be 
brought up to great perfection, leaving nothing to be 
desired. 

A shallow recess is made on the surface of this part 
to receive the ring, which is next fitted ; this, it will be 



70 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

seen, is also cut with the vertical cutter, but with 
twelve consecutive cuts only. The driU-spindle is then 
substituted for the universal cutter, and a bold step- 
drill employed, the index being set io the haK of the 
number used to cut out the segments, so that the drill 
passes through its precise centre. 

The stem or pillar upon which the branches are 
supported will form the next proceeding. This is made 
in two separate pieces, with an ornamented ring of 
ivory between them ; the lower piece is 1| in. in 
diameter at the base, gradually tapering towards the 
top, the same gradation being conveyed to the upper 
portion ; care must be exercised to ensure the gradual 
tapering of the whole column, allowing for the inter- 
vening connection ; the base of the column is held to 
the foot by a steel pin \ in. in diameter, being firmly 
screwed into it with a nut and washer on the under 
side ; the two parts of the shaft are also connected by a 
steel screw of the same size, the ring being kept central 
by a plain fitting. 

To cut the twist, the spiral apparatus is employed ; 
the train of wheels consisting of 144 on the dividing 
chuck, geared to the 18 on the double arbor, the 120 on 
the same gearing into a 20 on the socket ; the universal 
cutter (Fig. 122), with a round-nosed tool ^-^^ in. wide, 
set out to a radius of -^^^, and set to operate as a vertical 
cutter. 



IVORY CANDELABRA. 73 

The work was held in the following way : — It being 
necessary to cut entirely through the length at each 
end, the hole tapped in the end was screwed to a corre- 
sponding thread on the chuck, the latter being turned 
down to the same diameter, so that the cutter passed 
clean through without fear of splintering or damaging 
the base ; in consequence of the face of the ivory being 
in close contact with the chuck, the opposite end is 
supported by the popit-head centre; the dividing 
chuck set to zero, and a cut made at 96, 24, 48, 72, 
four cuts in all. The column now under notice was 
cut at one cut, to try the power of the new instrument 
(Fig. 122), and was left from the tool, by which the 
excellence of the improved instrument was at once 
established. Although the result of this proceeding 
was in every way successful, it is recommended that 
such work should be executed in two or three con- 
secutive cuts. 

Having cut all four segments, the radius of the 
tool is reduced to j*q, the dividing-wheel moved to 12, 
and the cut continued at 36, 60, 84, the tool penetrated 
to bring the edge up perfectly sharp. The lower part, 
thus cut, is removed, and the upper portion placed on 
the same screw, the diameter of the chuck being 
reduced to correspond with it ; to cut this the same 
process is adopted. And here again considerable care 
is necessary not to cut below the surface, or the general 



74 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

tapering of the form will be destroyed, which will 
greatly mar the beauty of the work. 

On the end of the upper portion a plain pin is 
left, to which is fitted the plate that holds the 
branches, and projecting beyond this is. a screw that 
fits into the base of the tazza on the top, the foot of 
which holds all secure when finally put together. 
The outer edge of the ivory plate is cut out with the 
vertical cutter, the face has a deeply cut eccentric 
pattern, not seen in the illustration, and the six holes 
are drilled equidistantly to receive the branches. 

The tazza is made in two pieces, the top being 
scalloped at the edge with a large quarter-hollow 
drill, a row of beads being cut to project above the 
surface, a similar effect beiug produced on the small 
projection at the centre, above which the socket to 
hold the centre candle is fixed. The branches to hold 
the sockets must next be made. These, it wUl be 
observed, are the result of rings which, when carefully 
finished, are cut in halves and connected in opposite 
directions. They are 2;^- in. in diameter externally, 
and 1-| in. inside, turned in width to equal the sub- 
stance remaining from the two diameters. The face 
of each is then ornamented on both sides with the 
eccentric cutter, each one differently. This is done 
after the plain part has been carefully polished. 

The horizontal cutter (Fig. 118) is then employed, 



IVORY CANDELABRA. 75 

with the spindle and saw to cut the rings precisely in 
the centre. The saw is carefully adjusted to the axis 
of the mandrel by the two set screws, and by the main 
screw of the rest it is passed across the face, by which 
process the rings are equally divided, and perfectly 
square and flat where it is cut, so that when reversed 
the two halves will fit together and be parallel one 
to the other. To fix them together, and hold them 
firmly when fixed, a steel pin, having a thin piece 
between the joints to break the plainness of it, is 
screwed into the centre, and forms a more appropriate 
finish. To cut the six squares all exactly alike, a 
piece of ivory should be turned to a cylinder the 
required diameter, and long enough for all ; each piece 
is partly cut through, the vertical cutter is then used 
to produce the four concave sides, and, when this is 
done, they may be finally severed ; being thus cut in 
one process, they are all made precisely alike, and 
in less time than if cut separately. 

To attach the branches to the disc, which is fixed 
to the top of the column, a steel pin is also employed. 
This is firmly fixed in the centre of the square formed 
by the half of the ring, and the ivory nut which holds 
it has a plain part which fits the hole in the disc. 
This is less trouble than attaching a piece to the ring, 
and answers the same purpose. On the opposite end 
of the branch another steel pin is fixed to receive the 



76 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

sockets that liold the candles ; at the base of each 
socket a round disc of ivory, If- in. in diameter, is 
fitted, the hole in the centre being only just large 
enough to fit over the steel screw; it has a scalloped 
edge, which is cut with a pointed bead-tool similar to 
Fig. 105, ^^'^ in. wide on the cutting points. For 
this operation the instrument is set so that the tool 
cuts horizontally; there are sixteen consecutive cuts, 
the intervening point being the result of what is left 
from the angles on the sides of the tool. These should 
all be cut on the same chuck, and the same settings 
used, and, when thus far finished, they can be re- 
chucked by the inside of that part previously cut ; 
this must be carefully done, so that none of the points 
are broken. On the top a series of small beads, thirty- 
two in number, is cut with a bead-drill -^^^^ in. wide, 
and the edge again cut to the same number with a 
round-nosed tool. These discs form a foundation upon 
which the base of the socket or sconces rest, and add 
greatly to the elegance of the whole design. 

The next proceeding will be to make the six holders 
for the candles, and the only difficulty that wiU be 
found, is the fact of their being all required precisely 
alike. The six pieces of ivory should be all cut off 
the same length ; each one is then held in a universal 
or die chuck, and the hole to receive the candle bored 
or turned out, all being made exactly the same size, 



IVORY CANDELABRA. jy 

in order that ultimately they may be worked up on 
the same chuck; the hole finished, the body and lip 
must be shaped and polished, the former only as far 
as the extremity of the concave curves is concerned ; 
the top part is then cut out with the vertical cutter to 
eight concave curves, leaving about -J in. between each, 
to be cut with a drill; the face then has a series of 
twenty-four beads cut on it with a drill j',,-,, in. wide. 
Having carried out the same process on each one, they 
should be re-chucked by the hole, and, as before sug- 
gested, if they are identical in size, one chuck will 
suffice for them all ; when reversed, the lower part of 
the vase must be shaped and polished. 

To cut the pattern on the convex curve, the eccen- 
tric cutter is used with a single-angle left-side tool 
60°, the slide-rest is set to an angle of 40°, and raised 
|- in. above the centre, so that the cut only takes effect 
on one side of the work. This particular class of work 
is illustrated also by Figs. 5 and 6, Plate 1 ; there are 
thirty-two cuts round this part, and, being cut deeply, 
it is, for such a purpose, a most effective result. 

The base is then cut square with the eccentric 
cutter, having a round-nosed tool in it. The size, 
when finished, is -| in., therefore the diameter of the 
material must be left large enough at that part to 
admit of its being perfectly clean and sharp when 
reduced by the eccentric cutter to this size. 



78 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

The centre sconce is made the same shape, but is 
cut on the convex curve rather differently, inasmuch 
as the slide-rest is adjusted to the precise height of 
the mandrel axis, and a double-angle tool used in 
place of the single-angle. The chains hanging from 
each arm complete the work, as illustrated. These 
are made in rings of different sizes, gradually tapering 
from the centre to the ends in each direction, and are 
put together by each alternate ring being split, which 
must be carefully done with the grain ; they are then 
soaked in warm water, when they will open, and 
when dry the joint will remain quite close. They 
are attached to the arm by a small ivory pin with a 
head to it, screwed to the branch immediately under 
the disc. 

Being strongly made, and each part firmly attached, 
it may be considered a useful as well as an ornamental 
specimen of turning, and the designs for such subjects 
may be carried out in a variety of ways. That now 
described may, at the same time, suggest many im- 
provements for future operations, and assist amateurs 
in the development of this class of work. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE SPHERICAL SLIDE-REST. 

The modern rest of this particular construction, with 
all its latest improvements, will be found illustrated by 
the engraving Fig. 173. It is composed of four slides 



Fic.lFi 




and one rotary movement ; the two slides at the lower 
extremity working at right angles one to the other, 
below the circular movement, while the two upper 
slides are arranged to work above it. 

79 



8o ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

The movable plate, which is fitted to the third slide, 
has a socket cast on it in the solid, to which the stem 
of the plate carrying the tool-box is flatted, and the same 
is clamped in any position by a screw passing through 
a steel ring which encircles the socket. In proceeding 
to manufacture such an instrument, the following 
details will, it is hoped, be found of some service. 

Like all such tools, it should be commenced at the 
foundation, therefore the first or lower slide should be 
chucked carefully on a planing machine, face downward, 
and the tenon planed to fit freely in the interval of 
lathe-bed, the base being surfaced at the same time, 
where it rests on the bed. 

It will be seen by reference to the engraving that 
this slide is made to extend on both sides of the lathe- 
bed, and proves of considerable service when the rest is 
used to turn and decorate large concave curves. At the 
end, overhanging the top board, that is, away from the 
operator, a projection is left on the under side, through 
which a long steel screw passes, and, when tightened, 
draws the tenon against the inside of the lathe-bed, 
thereby ensuring the rest being square to it. It is also 
provided with a holding-down bolt, with bow-handle 
and washer, to fix it firmly to the lathe-bed when in 
use. 

The tenon and base being planed, the slide must be 
re-chucked on the machine, and the face and angles 



THE SPHERICAL SLIDE-REST. 8i 

planed perfectly true to it ; and here great care must be 
exercised, as much depends on its accuracy, so that 
when the screw is tightened to the bed and the tenon 
drawn against it, the slide will be at right angles. 
The plate which forms the slide is then got up to a 
perfect surface and the two side-bars fixed ; these are 
made of gun-metal, and held by three screws, the heads 
countersunk in the under side. One bar has also two 
steady-pins, the other is adjustable by two set-screws, 
which are screwed into the steel plate, their heads 
projecting so as to create a pressure upon the metal 
bar. When fitted thus far, the slides should be very 
carefully ground together with fine oilstone powder, but 
the greatest care must be taken to exclude emery 
powder of any description. 

On the top of the plate, the second sKde is fixed, 
haviug been first planed and surfaced. It is held firmly 
by four steel screws, with their heads also countersunk 
in the under side of the plate ; its position is such that 
one end is flush with the side of the first plate, the 
whole of the extension being on the right side, as seen 
in the engraving. In fixing this slide to the plate, one 
screw should be first put in, the slide then set perfectly 
true at a right angle to the lower one, when it will be in 
a parallel line with the bed, and when so set, the other 
three screws are fitted with greater facility. Having 
the slide thus fixed, a plate, similar to that on which 
VOL. :ii. G 



S2 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

it is placed, is fitted to it, with gun-metal bars, in the 
same way as the lower one. 

The rotary movement will be the next to engage 
attention. The worm-wheel is made of gun-metal, and 
has 120 teeth cut on its periphery, and is actuated by 
a steel tangent-screw, working in a frame of the same 
material; the frame is pivoted at one end, and is 
thrown in and out of gear by a steel cam and spring, 
the action being the same as applied to the ellipse and 
other chucks. 

The top of the wheel is turned out at its centre to 
receive a large screw, with | in. plain part and 1;^ in. 
diameter in the head ; the screw is then accurately 
fitted to it, and screwed iato the top plate of the second 
slide. This screw should be so fitted, that when it is 
forced tightly to the plate, the worm-wheel will revolve 
without too much freedom between the face of the plate 
and the head of the screw, and (as seen in the engrav- 
ing) is on the left side when the slide is parallel to the 
lathe-bed. The worm-wheel is covered with a gun- 
metal ring, fitting closely round its periphery for the 
purpose of excluding dust and shavings ; the frame into 
which the tangent-screw is fitted is also cut out to fit 
round the wheel for the same purpose. On the top 
of the worm-wheel, the third slide is fixed by one 
extremity, and held by four screws countersunk into 
the bottom of the wheel. 



THE SPHERICAL SLIDE-REST. 83 

On this slide a strong gun-metal plate with a 
projection to form a socket is fitted, in the same way 
as those already described. The bars should then be 
removed, and the plate very carefully chucked by its 
lower surface, the socket then turned out to 1 in. 
in diameter to receive the stem of the fourth slide. 
When this aperture is turned out, a small air-hole 
should be drilled through the base, or a perfect fitting 
cannot be made ; at the same time, the external part of 
the socket should be turned to receive a steel ring, 
through which the fixing-screw will pass, to hold the 
stem of the top slide in such positions as it may be 
required when in use. 

The fourth and last slide is, to a very large extent, 
a copy of the ordinary tool-box of the ornamental slide- 
rest, being fitted up on a steel plate with a stem 
attached to it to fit into the hole already turned out in 
the socket of the plate on the third slide. This fitting 
is one in which particular care should be exercised, as 
it must fit accurately, or the pressure of the binding- 
screw will alter its truth in relation to the other slides. 
It may be well to again refer to the necessity for 
absolute truth in all the chuckings, as the least error in 
any one will eventually become a serious drawback 
when all the slides are finally put together. Nothing 
but extreme accuracy of workmanship will make such 
an iastrument capable of working truly. 



84 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

At present, it will be seen, there is no adjustment 
for the exact height of the tool. To effect this, the stem 
which fits into the socket has a screw through it, which 
raises or lowers the tool slide. This screw, the head of 
which is under the tool-box, is only accessible when 
the latter is withdrawn. This can very easily be done 
when any alteration in the height of centre is necessary. 
It will be seen that the steel ring which surrounds the 
socket has a divided scale on it. This is most useful in 
setting the tool round to any particular position that 
may be found necessary. 

The slides being so far finished, the fitting of the 
main screws will form the next proceeding. These, like 
all such screws, are made with ten threads to the inch. 
The ends of the slides are carefully lined out and 
drilled, the front large enough to allow j^g-in. screws to 
pass freely through, while the opposite ends are drilled 
to receive the poiat of the screws when turned down to 
the bottom of the threads. The front is also counter- 
sunk to receive the collar attached to the screw, which 
must be well fitted. Gun-metal plates are then fixed 
to the ends of the slides to hold the main screws in 
their places. On the end of each screw a gun-metal 
micrometer is fitted, divided into ten equal parts. 
These are first turned down, so that the slides will pass 
over them, and not made with milled heads. The latter 
are entirely a mistake, as they prevent the slide moving 



THE SPHERICAL SLIDE-REST. 85 

as far as may be required. This is avoided when they 
are turned down, and each slide, it will be seen, has a 
divided scale on its surface, marked at each turn of the 
screw, that is, every tenth of an inch. This has been 
found of very considerable service. 

Another improvement in this instrument is of such 
a simple character as to scarcely deserve the name, 
but, at the same time, it renders the tool consider- 
ably more serviceable. It is simply the addition of 
two extra holes, in which the screws that hold the 
nut of the third slide are placed. Its importance is 
clearly shown by the fact that work of much larger 
dimensions can be executed, consequent upon the slide 
being allowed to pass over the stem of the winch- 
handle, which admits of the various instruments beins 
brought further from the centre of the circular move- 
ment; the nut need only be fixed by these holes 
when required. Fixed in the centre of the plate, for 
instance, work of IJ to 2 in. only could be decorated, 
but when fixed at the end, by the two holes as 
seen in the engraving, the slide is allowed to recede 
2 in. or more further from the axis of the wheel, 
and larger work can be done. In recognizing this 
fact, it must be remembered that such instruments 
as the horizontal or universal cutter project a long 
way from the face of the tool-box, and thus occupy 
the space which is required for the work to revplve in. 



86 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

Another improvement is the adapting of the 
tangent-screw to receive the whole of the spiral 
apparatus. This is done by fixing a strong metal 
arm to the plate of the second slide under the centre 
of the tangent-screw, the object of the arm being to 
support the end of a spindle, which is fitted to a 
bearing as seen in Fig. 173, and on which the various 
wheels of the spiral apparatus are fitted ; the bevel 
wheels are used to connect the rest with the rotation 
of the lathe-head. The end of the arm has a curved 
slot, which allows the tangent-screw to be moved in 
and out of gear, without taking off the spindle, the 
end of which is made to receive a winch-handle for 
ordinary purposes. 

The segment-stops are also another important 
addition. It will be noticed that a series of holes 
is drilled round the top of the worm-wheel ; into 
these are placed two steel pillars with adjusting screwy, 
in place of the now obsolete arrangement of pairs of 
pins of various sizes, with flat heads. The points 
of the screws come in contact with a projecting steel 
pillar, which can be placed on either side to correspond 
with the alteration of the third slide. 



CHAPTER X. 

MANIPULATION OF THE SPHEKICAL REST. 

The difficulty of producing an accurate sphere by 
hand-turning, and of decorating curves with con- 
tinuous ornamentation, has brought the simple rest, 
as known to Bergeron, to its present state of per- 
fection, and made it a most valuable addition to any 
ornamental turning lathe. It has no less than seven 
movements, by means of which convex and concave 
curves of any degree are readily obtained, from a 
small bead around the periphery of a large piece of 
work, to a sphere of 4 or 5 in. in diameter; and 
when so turned, the bare form may be ornamented 
to any extent by replaciag the fixed tool with the 
various revolving cutters, the termination of each cut 
or flute being determined by the segment-stops, which 
fix into the worm-wheel. 

The curves produced, whether concave or convex, 
and their position, depend entirely upon two conditions: 
First, the position of the worm-wheel; secondly, whether 
the tool be on the far or near side of the centre of the 

87 



88 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

■worm-wheel. To ascertain the position of the worm- 
wheel, it is necessary to mark a zero line upon the 
first slide, which is effected in the following manner : — 
Turn a cylinder, mark on it a fine pencil line, place 
the rest on the lathe with the axis of the worm-wheel 
as nearly as possible under the pencil line, place the 
fourth slide parallel with the third by means of its 
index and divisions on ring, and both parallel to the 
first slide ; place a double-angle tool in the tool-box, 
and, by means of the second slide, bring its point 
exactly opposite the pencil line; throw the tangent- 
screw out of gear, and turn the worm-wheel exactly 
halfway round, and by means of the first slide it is 
so adjusted that the tool shall just touch the line, 
both on the far and near sides of the cylinder; the 
axis of the worm-wheel will then be exactly under 
that of the lathe. The zero line should then be cut 
on the surface of the first slide. The worm-wheel 
can always be adjusted to the zero line, which will 
in most cases be found sufficient for practical 
purposes. 

Having obtained the means of placing the worm- 
wheel accurately in a transverse direction, it is neces- 
sary also to do this in the longitudinal, which is 
effected as follows : — Place the third slide parallel 
with the second, and move the rest until a straight 
edge placed on the face of the work coincides with 



THE SPHERICAL REST. 89 

the zero line which passes transversely through the 
axis of the worm-wheel. 

To illustrate the working of the spherical rest, 
let it be desired to cut a boxwood sphere of 2 in. 
diameter; turn the wood true at the end and reduce 
it to a cylinder of the required size; mark a fine 
pencil line 1 in. from the end ; it should then be 
turned approximately spherical by hand; place the 
slide-rest then on the lathe with the axis of worm- 
wheel under the pencil line, and the first slide at zero. 
This done, the first and second slide must not be 
moved; any other alteration may be made as you 
please. Now, if an ordinary slide-rest tool were used, 
the fourth slide would come in contact with the 
shoulder of the work, or the chuck on which it is, 
long before the tool had traversed round the sphere 
far enough for even general purposes, hence the neces- 
sity for the application of the curved tool (Fig. 178) ; 
this would completely sever the sphere, but a stem 
sufficiently strong to hold it must be left until the 
whole of it is turned; it can then be detached by 
a tool of a similar shape, but with an acute point 
(Fig. 179). 

It is obviously impossible to ornament a sphere 
entirely from pole to pole by one chucking only, but 
this can be effected by a line marked exactly upon 
the equator, and after one hemisphere is decorated, it 



90 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

can be rechucked the reverse way with the equatorial 
line perfectly true with the surface of the chuck, a 
proceeding which will require great care, as it is a 
somewhat difficult process. 

Next let it be desired to excavate a hemisphere, 
the reverse operation to the last. To do this, turn the 
end of the work true, place the spherical rest with 
the first slide at zero, and the third slide parallel to 
the second, so that the zero line of the worm-wheel 
shall exactly coincide with the surface of the work. 
This is effected by means of the second slide, thus — 
Commence with a straight round-nosed tool, which 
must be let in gradually while it sweeps out the 
material as the excavation progresses ; when the fourth 
slide comes in contact with the edge of the work, a 
curved tool must be substituted for the straight one, 
and the hemisphere completed. In practice, the bulk 
of the material would be removed by hand-turning, 
and the hemisphere finished only by the spherical 
slide-rest. 

A diagram illustrating the curves, though simple, 
may be desirable. Let M p represent the axis of the 
lathe from mandrel to popit-head, c the centre of 
the work, and A B the diameter and back of work. 
(1) With tool at radius c B, and worm-wheel coincident 
with G, the hemisphere A D B results, and the alteration 
of the radius would only increase or decrease it ; (2) if 



THE SPHERICAL REST. 



91 



worm-wheel be 0'25 nearer p at m, the curve E F G 
results ; (3) if worm-wheel be 0-25 nearer M at 0, the 
ciirve H K L results. It is to be observed that these 




177 



3lN 




7 



r- F 



&=- 



/ 



Fi /7f 




/ 



curves, e F G, h K L, must fall within the diameter A B, 
therefore this must be compensated by an increase 
of radius if the diameter A b is to be preserved ; and 
again this increase of radius will necessitate another 



92 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

compensation e g if the hemisphere A D B has been cut, 
and it is desired to cut a curve A K b, passing through 
the point A b, and also through K, a point 0'25 nearer 
to M ; then by means of the second slide the worm-wheel 
must be moved from c to 0, i.e. 0-25 nearer to M. 
But curve A K b falls within the points A B by, say, 0-05, 
therefore the radius must be increased by 0'05 ; but 
this will bring the curve 0'05 further from M beyond 
the point K, consequently the worm-wheel must be 
moved nearer to M by fully 0'05, for as the worm-wheel 
is moved towards M, so does the curve A K B fall stUl 
further within the points A B ; (4) it is obvious that 
as the worm-wheel approaches M, the flatter does the 
curve become, as A E B, provided that by increased 
radius the tool still travels through A B, and conversely, 
as the worm-wheel approaches p a greater portion of 
the sphere results ; (5) if you regard A B as the axis 
of the lathe, and M P as the diameter of the work, the 
same reasoning applies to oblate and prolate spheroids. 
These may all be ornamented by means of revolving 
cutters, or a drill, and the flutes may, by traversing 
the first and second slides, be continued at right angles 
to the axis of the lathe or parallel with it. 

The author has pleasure in bringing under the 
notice of amateur turners the spherical parting tools 
invented and patented by the Eev. C. C. EUison. 
They are made in sets of four (Figs. 174, 175, 176, 



THE SPHERICAL REST. 



93 



and 177), sufficient for all general purposes. They all 
fit into a steel bar, which is also useful as an internal 
boring or parting tool. The blades vary from O'S to 
1"5 in. in width, and are as simple in appearance as 
they are difficult in production, being turned by a 



TigJ79 




^I 




specially constructed tool to the exact radius of the 
curve they are intended to cut, viz. 2, 3, 4, and 5 in. 
diameters. By their assistance the whole of the inside 
of a hemisphere, either of soft wood or ivory, can be 
turned out in shells clean and true to shape, and ready 
without further labour to be chucked and ornamented ; 



94 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

thus a very large amount of valuable material is saved. 
They are used thus — Suppose the material to be a 
solid block of ivory, turn the surface true and polish 
it, make five circles of 2, 3, 4, and 5 in. diameter, 
place the tool-box of the spherical slide-rest level with 
the front of the fourth slide, and fix it by both depth 
and stop-screw, using, of course, the bridle to the 
former ; it is necessary that both screws should be 
fixed, lest vibration should occur; place the steel bar 
quite home in the tool-box, adjust the rest to excavate 
a hemisphere, and fix the 2-in. blade quite home in 
the tool-box, throw the tangent-screw out of gear, 
release the fixing-screw of socket-ring, and adjust the 
inside edge of the blade to touch the 2-in. circle, and 
the inside curve of blade to a trifle less than 1 in. 
from the centre of the face of the ivory ; the exact 
position being determined by a brass gauge made for 
the purpose. 

Place the tangent-screw into gear and tighten the 
fixing-screw; the tool may then be passed into the 
ivory by rotating the tangent-screw, and a solid 2-in. 
hemisphere will be cut out; readjust the slide-rest, 
substitute the 3-in. blade for the 2-in., proceed as 
before, and a hollow hemisphere will result. The 
same process must be repeated with the other blades. 
Where hemispheres of larger dimensions are required, 
the blade may be taken out, sharpened, and replaced 



THE SPHERICAL REST. 97 

with mechanical accuracy. There is one important 
arrangement to notice, without which some difficulty 
may arise when operating upon work of the larger 
diameter. "While the blades can be made of any 
strength, the spherical rest, from its construction, is of 
necessity comparatively unstable, and to counteract 
the great strain in cutting a large diameter, a piece 
of soft wood must be placed against the face of the 
work, and between the bottom of the blade and the 
top of the third slide ; this prevents vibration and 
strain upon the rest. If it is desired to cut out shells 
greater or less than a hemisphere, the axis of the 
worm-wheel must be moved further from, or nearer to 
the lathe-head. 

Although a variety of tools have been made for 
use in spherical slide-rest, the ordinary slide-rest tool 
will do a deal of the work, but curved tools are 
essential. Fig. 178 is an excellent tool for roughing- 
out the work externally, while Fig. 179 is employed 
for cutting off. There should be about four sizes to 
suit different diameters of work. 

On Plate 14, Mr. Ellison further enables me to 
give an illustration of one of the best specimens of 
spherical work yet produced, by a combination of the 
rose engine, ellipse chuck, and the spherical slide-rest, 
and it is hoped that the following details will enable 
any amateur possessed of the necessary apparatus to 

VOL. III. H 



98 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

reproduce it : the ring or moulding was cut first, and 
as no larger ivory could be procured, tlie two blocts 
(weighing 7 lbs. each, and measuring 1\ by 6 J in. 
in the rough) for the two halves of the vase had to be 
reduced; one block for the lower half was chucked 
and turned true upon a double eccentric and ellipse 
chuck, the sliding ring having 0"55 eccentricity, a groove 
cut 01 in. wide and 0'2 in. deep at '25 from the edge; 
the block was reversed in the chuck, and a correspond- 
ing groove cut upon the opposite side. A hole was 
then bored from one to the other, and by means of a 
frame-saw, the grooves serving as guides, an oval ring, 
6-8 in. by 5'8 in. by 0'25 in., was severed; next a large 
oval picture-frame was cut off, but not until the rebate 
and back had been turned and polished. 

The block was then re-chucked the reverse way, 
and fitted to receive half the thickness of the ring; 
by means of the spherical rest and inside parting tools, 
the inside was cut out in frames, finished off with a 
ciitter-bar and polished. Then it was re-chucked the 
reverse way by the rebate, and the rose-engine oscil- 
latiag movement so adjusted by a spiral level that 
one point of the rosette was in the same horizontal 
line as the longer or major axis of the ellipse ; the 
edge of the revolving cutter was placed in the same 
plane, and its axis in the same vertical plane as the 
back of the work, where it thus cuts the full depth of 



THE SPHERICAL REST. 99 

the pattern. This done, the rosette was moved exactly 
one half of its wave or pattern. The tangent-screw 
was moved four complete turns, and the cutting re- 
peated to the same depth ; the rosette having been 
moved back to its original position, a similar cut was 
made; and so on until the pattern was completed; 
the other block was treated in the same way, and also 
made to fit into the ring. For the base, the ellipse 
chuck received 0'4 eccentricity, and it was cut in the 
same manner as the halves of the body, the rest having 
been adjusted to the recLuisite curve ; the ring between 
the base and body received 0"45 eccentricity, and was 
cut like the ring on the top, upon the face and each 
edge ; the finial was begun with 0'4 eccentricity, gradu- 
ally reduced to 0, and was cut with a vertical cutter 
revolving the reverse way to the lathe. The ivory in 
the rough weighed 18^ lbs., and was worth £14. The 
finished vase weighs 1 lb. 14 ozs., and about £6 in 
value was saved in frames, etc. 

The cutter used was designed by Mr. EUison, and 
deserves mention. It consists of a steal disc, 1"5 in. 
in diameter, 0'3 in. thick, having fifteen teeth inclined 
over the radius at an angle of about 15°, the face of 
the teeth being at an angle of about 30° to the axis of 
spindle, so that the best cutting edge, perhaps, is com- 
bined with such clearance that the ivory shavings 
flow out like a stream of snow-flakes. The rapidity 



loo ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

of cutting is such that a 4-in. hemisphere can be 
fluted with only one sharpening of the cutter, and in 
less time than is required by the usual fly-cutter ; the 
work, moreover, is left in a highly polished condition. 
With a fair amount of practice, any amateur turner 
of average experience can so far master the spherical 
slide-rest as to produce and ornament a vast variety 
of curves, in as great a number of different positions. 
Such a tool can only be regarded as a most valuable 
addition to a lathe. 



CHAPTER XI. 

VASE OENAMENTED WITH SPHERICAL SLIDE-EEST. 

The vase represented by Plate 15 further illustrates 
the different applications of the spherical slide-rest, and 
the following details will, it is hoped, enable any 
amateur turner to reproduce it. It may, of course, be 
reduced or enlarged, as well as made from various 
materials. That from which the illustration was taken 
is made from boxwood only, which arose from the fact 
of its being made by the author during some experi- 
ments and improvements that were carried out with 
reference to the spherical slide-rest. 

As a first trial, perhaps it will be as well to appro- 
priate the same material, but for a finished specimen it 
should be made either in ivory or African blackwood, 
one of each of which has been made by amatuers from 
the details as they appeared, and is considered in every 
way satisfactory. The first attempt to reproduce a 
piece of work of this nature may not result in an exact 
copy; this is scarcely to be expected, as the instrument 
is in itself complicated, and it will require some practice 



I02 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

to overcome the difficulties of such an intricate piece of 
machinery ; this, however, is modified by the explanation 
of the manipulation of the slide-rest in the previous 
chapter. 

When about to turn such a vase, the proportions 
must claim the attention of the operator, and the 
material, whatever it is, must be selected with care as 
to the size and grain. Should it be desired to produce 
a fair copy, the dimensions of the original are 12J in. 
high, the tazza 5^ in. diameter. Those portions of the 
material that will not turn up to the required dimen- 
sions must be discarded, and replaced by others. K 
the sizes of the various parts are not so maintained, the 
result will probably not be satisfactory. The author 
does not presume to anticipate that the vase illustrated 
may not be greatly improved by many of the experienced 
amateur turners who may read this work. The above 
remarks therefore refer to the production of a true copy 
only. 

The material to be used must now be left entirely 
to the taste of the turner, but, as a basis, we will 
assume that ivory has been selected for the purpose. 
The base, which is a plain ogee, should be cut from the 
hollow end of a tusk, the body also cut from a similar 
part, but of smaller dimensions; the former may be 
held in the following way : from the unevenness of 
the interior, it will probably not be expedient to turn 



ORNAMENTED VASE. 105 

it out, in which case a boxwood chuck should be turned 
down to allow the ivory to pass over with sufficient 
freedom to admit of the external diameter being set as 
near true as possible ; the ivory is then fixed to the face 
of the chuck with strong glue. 

The figure is then carefully turned, and being quite 
plain, is executed by hand-turning ; the front is next 
turned out to a suitable diameter, and screwed to 
receive the body, which, when fitted, is held in its 
place for further operations, as the base into which it is 
screwed forms a permanent chuck. 

The body is fluted with a large-size step- drill em- 
ployed in the ordinary ornamental slide-rest, the 
fluting-stop as previously described being used to 
determine the length of each ; these flutes beiag deeply 
cut, and the tool of extra size, each one will require a 
series of cuts to complete it, and in working round a 
large diameter of this material, it may reasonably be 
expected that the drill will lose a deal of excellence in 
its cutting powers. Therefore, when cut round, the drill 
should be taken out and very carefully re-sharpened, 
and a light cut again taken over each flute. If from 
the fact of sharpening the drill a slight deviation of its 
profile should occur, it will not interfere with the result, 
as a slightly increased penetration will cause the exact 
form of the drill to result. Between each flute, suffi- 
cient space is left for a second (drill a round-nosed one) 



io6 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

to be inserted. The original is 4 in. in diameter at this 
part, and contains twenty-four deeply cut step-grooves 
or flutes, the smaller drill being inserted between each. 
At the lower extremity of the flute, a rather larger 
round-nosed drill is employed to seriate the hoUow. 

The convex, curved lip at the top of this part is 
now turned, and this affords the first instance of the ap- 
plication of the spherical slide-rest. The curve being 
approximately reduced to shape, the spherical rest is 
placed on the bed of the lathe and fixed. The main 
slide is then adjusted to the precise centre of the lathe- 
axis, and the slide which carries the worm-wheel so 
fixed as to place the latter under the centre of the curve 
to be turned. This wUl at first be found a somewhat 
troublesome job, but a little experience will soon 
obviate any difficulty ; once set, the work is turned in 
plain form, and, as it is afterwards fluted with a smaller 
sized step-drill, the drilling instrument is substituted 
for the fixed tool. Should the point of the drill not 
traverse round the cui-ve sufficiently, it may be adjusted 
to io so by turning the tool receptacle in the socket, 
but on no account whatever must the position of the 
worm-wheel be disturbed. The difference in the position 
of the fixed tool and drill will arise simply from the 
fact of the plain form being turned with a curved tool, 
while the drill is central to the stem of the instrument. 
The distance the drill is allowed to travel is determined 



ORNAMENTED VASE. 107 

by the segment-stop in the worm-wheel. Thus far the 
body may be considered finished, and the recess in the 
top of it only remains to be turned out and screwed to 
receive the foot of the tazza, or upper part. 

To proceed, the foot of this part, when fitted to the 
base, should be removed, and held in a wood chuck 
screwed to receive it, and, for further security, a little 
glue may be placed between the two faces. This is not 
absolutely necessary, and may be omitted if the fitting 
is well made ; but in the case of any excessive excava- 
tion being required, it is always a safeguard against the 
work moving in the chuck. 

The concave curve roughly shaped, the spherical 
slide-rest is adjusted, and the tool extended beyond the 
centre to suit the curve, which is then accurately turned ; 
the vertical cutter (Fig. 95) is then placed in the tool- 
box, and, by shifting the tool-slide in the socket, the 
point of the cutter is brought to the desired position to 
follow the curve. The vertical cutter alluded to is the 
most suitable for application in this slide-rest, from the 
fact of the spindle extending to one side only, as there 
is no framework to prevent the tool passing round the 
curve, by coming in contact with any shoulder, or face 
of the chuck, etc. The tool thus adjusted, twelve con- 
secutive cuts are made by employing the 96 division 
arrested at every eighth hole. At the base of this 
curve a very small convex curve is seriated, and at the 



io8 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

top a circle of small beads ; these should be cut with an 
astragal tool, so that the beads stand well apart. The 
intermediate part or stem is carried out in the same 
way, being first shaped, and afterwards ornamented. 

We now arrive at that portion which may be con- 
sidered the most difficult; and that which, if carefully 
turned, will complete the design. The whole of that 
part forming the tazza is in one piece, and this, perhaps, 
renders it more difficult to execute. The rough block 
of material is held in the universal chuck and the inside 
turned out, and, in the first instance, a short, slightly 
taper fitting should be left. It is then removed from 
the universal chuck, and re-chucked upon a boxwood 
plug by the inside fitting. The convex curve forming 
the bowl is approximately shaped, together with the 
upper concave curve. The spherical rest is then carefully 
adjusted to the precise axis of the lathe by the lower 
slide, while with the second slide the axis of the 
worm-wheel is placed under the centre of the hemi- 
sphere to be turned. A straight tool will be found to 
pass round far enough for this purpose. 

The drilling instrument is then substituted, and a 
step-drill employed of smaller dimensions than that 
used for the base. The segment-stops are arranged so 
that the drUl will pass out at the diameter of the work, 
and is arrested as it approaches the centre to the de- 
sired point. This part contains forty-eight consecutive 



ORNAMENTED VASE. 109 

incisions, half of wMch are first cut ; the intermediate 
ones are arrested at half the distance, in order that the 
form of the curve should not be destroyed by their too 
close proximity at the centre, and this also allows a 
series of round-nosed drills of different sizes to be 
studded seriatim over that part left uncut. It must be 
mentioned that when cutting the second series of step- 
flutes, the segment-stop should be re-adjusted to pre- 
vent the undue traverse of the drill. 

It is found in practice that much of the material 
may be excavated by the partial rotation of the circular 
movement by hand, but for all finishing cuts the tangent- 
screw should be placed in gear, and the motion governed 
by it. 

The second slide must now be adjusted to the con- 
cave curve ; this will require a careful setting. The 
series of round-nosed drills is agaia employed to deco- 
rate this form ; the work is then removed, and again 
chucked by the convex curve. This will also require 
considerable care, as it is held by the spaces left uncut 
by the step-drill ; it will, however, hold perfectly tight 
in the chuck if correctly fitted. The convex curve at 
the top is then turned, and the spherical rest agaia set 
to suit the curve. This is ornamented with a series of 
ribs or reeds ; these were cut with a quarter-hollow 
drill with an astragal end, which creates a space 
between each ; and as the distance at which the drill 



no ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

was arrested for each cut did not allow the true form 
of the hemisphere to result, the reeds are of an elliptic 
form, which add to, rather than detract from, its 
appearance. 

So far, the whole specimen is complete, with the 
exception of the cover. Some who have examined this 
vase have expressed an opinion that it is improved 
without the latter ; this may at the same time be con- 
sidered a matter of opinion, and any turner deeming it 
worthy of reproduction, can omit this part or not, 
according to taste. 

The manner in which this part is turned is similar 
to the details already explained, the vertical cutter 
being used for the concave curve in the same manner 
as employed for the foot. The cover, it may be re- 
marked, is not LQtended to iit closely on the curve, the 
spaces rendering the vase appropriate as a receptacle 
for fot pourri. 



CHAPTEE XII. 

ELLIPTIC CASKET. 

The illustration contained in Plate 16 affords an oppor- 
tunity of explaining the use of the spherical slide-rest, 
in combination with the ellipse chuck, by which very 
elegant designs are produced and decorated. 

The following instructions will be of service in the 
reproduction of a similar specimen : first select a 
piece of ivory cut from the end of a large hollow, and 
in doing so let it be of considerable substance, in order 
that the concave curve may be turned without en- 
croaching too closely to the inside ; it must be at least 
I in. thick. Such a piece of ivory is prepared in the 
following way: first face it over on one side, after 
which it is fixed to a wood chuck by glue, and placed 
on the ellipse chuck ; when perfectly dry, a rebate is 
turned out at the opposite end, and the face turned 
quite true to it. 

In setting th? sUding-ring of the ellipse chuck to 
the required eccentricity, it must be arranged to suit 
the proportions of the material, by which the largest 



112 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

size possible is obtained ; the end faced, and the rebate 
turned, it is removed from the chuck; a second wood 
plug, driven lightly into a metal chuck, is then 
mounted on the ellipse chuck, and turned to fit the 
rebate accurately, when it is again glued and allowed 
to dry. The rebate is useful in two ways : first, it 
forms a means of securely holding the material to the 
chuck; secondly, it is for the purpose of receiving 
the false bottom, which is ultimately required. It is 
absolutely necessary to employ a metal cup chuck, for 
the reasons explained in the chapter on the manu- 
facture of the ellipse chuck; and the eccentricity of 
the ring, which, for the subject under notice was fixed 
at ^Q in., must remaiu the same throughout. 

To turn the body of the box to the shape will be 
the next proceeding. The spherical slide-rest is 
adjusted by the two lower slides, and as there is a 
considerable amount of material to remove, a strong 
tool is necessary, therefore, one with a shaft or stem 
fitting the tool-box is preferable. 

Having roughed out the shape, the tool must be 
carefully sharpened for a finishing cut, which should 
be made with the worm-wheel, under control of the 
tangent-screw. At the base, a large quarter-hollow 
tool is employed, to form the plaiu moulding ; when 
turning this, the tool is ' placed in position by the 
worm-wheel, and there held while it is inserted by 



ELLIPTIC CASKET. 115 

the guide-screw of the top slide. The tool is then 
changed for one of smaller size, and the corresponding 
form turned on the top. Before attempting to decorate 
this part it should be highly polished, as explained 
in the chapter relative to that particular branch of 
the art. 

The fixed tool must be replaced by the drilling 
instrument, with a large round-nosed drill, and the 
segment-stops adjusted, to arrest the partial rotation 
of the worm-wheel at the desired distance on each side 
of the centre. The ellipse chuck is then set vertically, 
and the first cut made at the zero of the 96 circle of 
holes; the tool is penetrated to the necessary depth, 
and the stop-screw set. The cut is repeated at every 
third hole of the division, resulting in thirty-two con- 
secutive cuts. A second drill, smaller in diameter, 
and with a square end, is then used to cut the recess 
deeper, the segment-stops being readjusted, so that 
the same substance is left at each end. 

The tool is again changed for a round-nosed driU, 
about J lo of an inch larger in diameter. It is then set 
by the tangent-screw to first cut the hollow nearest 
the base, which is repeated all round. It is then 
moved by the tangent-screw two-thirds of its diameter, 
and again inserted, the stop-screw having been fixed 
to determine the penetration. It only remains to 
repeat this twelve times to complete that part. It 

VOL, III. I 2 



ii6 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

will be seen that the spaces left between the flutes are 
also cut in a similar way. The dxiU is replaced by one 
of larger diameter, and the starting-point rearranged, 
which will require the aid of the adjusting index, in 
consequence of the dial-plate being moved three holes 
for each cut. Having adjusted these points (which 
have been previously referred to), the driU. is inserted 
to about three parts of the entire curve, and then 
moved a corresponding distance by the tangent-screw 
for the second series ; this, repeated twelve times, 
will carry them throughout the curve. This is a very 
effective pattern, and, if well cut, will not require 
further treatment in the way of polishing. 

The lid or top of the casket must next claim 
attention ; this, for convenience and economy, is made 
in five separate pieces. The ring which forms the 
fitting is the first to turn, and it will be an advantage 
in every way if it can be cut from the same tusk of 
ivory. A piece | in. thick will be sufficient to allow 
for chucking, also the part which forms the fitting for 
the bottom. This should be first held by glue, and the 
fitting accurately turned ; by this it is again chucked 
while the top is ornamented. 

This part will not require the spherical slide-rest, 
which may, therefore, be removed, and the ornamental 
rest employed. A hollow is first turned in the face, 
leaving a rim j2^ in. wide. A round-nosed driU is then 



ELLIPTIC CASKET. 117 

used, which is passed through the edge at every third 
hole of the 120 circle of division, resulting in forty in- 
cisions ; this process has left practically forty squares, 
and upon the top of each one it will be seen that a 
bead is cut. This is done by simply adjusting the 
tool to the correct centre, and employing a bead-drill 
with a broad astragal end. A large round-nosed drill, 
-^^ in. wide, is then used, to seriate the hollow which 
is incised at every hole of the same division, 120 ; 
above these, on the top, a row of smaller beads is cut 
at every second hole, leaving 60. The return concave 
curve towards the centre is also cut with a larger drill 
in a similar way ; this, however, from the nature of 
the illustration, is not clearly developed. The follow- 
ing ring it, will be seen, has required the spherical 
slide-rest in its decoration : it is first turned true to 
shape, and to fit a recess in the previous one, which 
is made to receive it, and then chucked by the inside. 
The eccentricity of the ring being still the same, the 
spherical rest is adjusted to bring the centre of the 
worm-wheel under that of the ring, and the tool neces- 
sarily moved near to the centre of the wheel, to operate 
on so small a curve. Having turned the plain form, it 
should, like its predecessors, be highly polished. 

The elKpse chuck is again set vertically, the pulley 
fixed at the 96 circle. A bold step-drill replaces the 
fixed tool, and is carried as far round the curve as 



ii8 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

possible, the segment-stops being again required. 
There are twenty-four cuts, and it is a pattern that 
mil require considerable attention and patience in 
its execution, but well repays the time spent upon it. 

The dome top will next require to be turned. 
This is made from a solid piece of ivory, and is care- 
fully fitted at the base to the interior of the ring 
preceding it. The spherical rest is adjusted in the 
same way as for turning a hemisphere, which the 
subject illustrated is similar to, although of an elliptic 
form. Here, again, the polishing must claim attention. 
A still bolder step-drill is then used, and fifteen cuts 
only are made round it, leaving a broad polished 
interval, which greatly adds to its appearance ; the 
points of the different steps, all resulting in sharp 
terminals, are also decorative. 

To complete the casket, nothing remains to be done 
but the finial. This, it ^\•ill be seen from its diminished 
size, terminates in a long elliptic form, which is left 
perfectly plain. On the top of this is an ornament, 
which is made in three pieces, and cut seriatim at 
different angles and curves, forming a kind of rosette. 

The only parts now to be done axe the feet, which, 
from the fact of their being, so to speak, the foundation, 
may be considered to be the first part ; it is, however, 
immaterial. Although a somewhat minor portion of 
the box, they require considerable care to produce 



ELLIPTIC CASKET. 1 19 

them all exactly alike. A brief explanation of the 
way in which they were made will be of service in 
their production. 

The four pieces of ivory are first turned by hand 
to the required form, and screwed where they enter 
the bottom of the box; they are then held by the 
screw while cut with the vertical cutter, which may 
be done either with one complete moulding-tool or two 
separate tools, and being all cut at the same setting, 
they are all precisely the same shape. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE GEOMETRIC SLIDE-EEST. 

This slide-rest was invented and patented by Captain 
E. Pudsey Dawson, and is a most useful and interest- 
ing addition to the amateur's lathe. It is applied in 




combination with the spiral apparatus, as will be seen 
by reference to the engraving, Fig. 180, and its general 
construction will be understood from the following 
details. 



THE GEOMETRIC SLIDE-REST. 121 

A cast-iron pedestal is fitted to a cradle in the 
same way as the ornamental-turning slide-rest — in fact, 
the same cradle can be appropriated. To this base a 
metal ring is fitted, for the purpose of raising and de- 
pressing the height of the tool. A cast-iron slide 12 in. 
long is then fitted by its stem, in a similar way to 
Figs. 13 and 14 ; this slide is set transversely across 
the lathe-bed when the rest is in use. A metal 
plate is accurately fitted, to slide from end to end, 
and is actuated by a strong spring, which takes the 
place of the screw. On the top of the metal plate 
a second, but shorter, slide is attached, and moves 
with it. This slide is provided with a screw of ten 
threads to the inch, the tool-box being fitted up 
in precisely the same way as the ornamental slide- 
rest. 

Across the front end of the lower slide a metal 
frame is fitted to lay parallel with the lathe-bed; this 
carries a spindle which extends at both ends, on one 
of which a cam is fixed, and by this the action of the 
slide and spring is governed, while the extension at 
the opposite end is to connect the movement with the 
spiral apparatus, and, as illustrated, it wUl be seen that 
on the improved plan the latter is attached to the 
back of the lathe-head. To the spindle, close to the 
metal frame, a worm-wheel is fixed, with a tangent- 
screw working in a metal frame, the latter being placed 



122 



ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 



in and out of gear by a cam and spring, similar to 
that on the eccentric chuck. 




Fig. 180*. 
The action of the slide-rest, when in use, is as 



THE GEOMETRIC SLIDE-REST. 123 

follows : the main slide is set perfectly true, at 
right angles to the lathe, to turn a flat surface, which 
is effected by the main screw of the second slide, the 
depth of cut being decided by the guide and stop-screw 
of the top slide. The surface of the material must be 
turned before any connection is made with the spiral 
apparatus or cam. Having surfaced the work, the 
necessary train of wheels can be arranged, and the 
cam adjusted so that sufficient tension is given to 
the spring to maintain the pressure of it against the 
small, steel roller attached to the curved arm, which 
is fixed to the first slide, as seen in the illustration. 

The transverse spindle which carries the cam is 
then connected to that which passes through the 
socket of the spiral apparatus by a universal joint, 
and when the winch-handle is turned, the uneven 
form of the cam causes the lower slide to oscillate, 
while, by its combination with the spiral wheels, the 
work is rotated at the same time. 

Many very beautiful patterns may be cut on the 
surface; a few of the various combinations are here 
illustrated. For simple line patterns cut with a fixed 
tool, the movement of the winch-handle is sufficient, 
and produces very good work; but the apparatus is 
by no means confined to this particular class of 
decoration. 

All the revolving instruments may be employed 



124 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

with it, and when these are used, it is necessary to 




Fig 180*. 
have the tangent-screw in gear with the worm-wheel, 



THE GEOMETRIC SLIDE-REST. 125 

and by this the consecutive cuts are spaced out. The 
worm-wheel having 96 teeth, the distance for each cut 
is determined by the number of turns of the screw, or 
the divisions of the micrometer on the same. 

When cutting deep patterns, which are very much 
more effective and useful for decorative purposes, 
the tool is inserted by the top-screw; and by the 
continuous rotating of the tangent-screw by its winch- 
handle, the cut is carried throughout the work. The 
variety of designs may be largely increased by the 
work being placed on the eccentric chuck, or employ- 
ing the spiral dividing chuck, especially the latter, in 
its present convenient position at the back of the 
lathe-head. 

A further variety in line patterns may be obtaiued 
by employing a fluting-stop, by which the traverse of 
the tool is arrested before reaching the limit of the 
cam, thus leaving part of the pattern a portion of a 
concentric circle only, as in No. 6, Fig. 180*. 

The cams most suitable for the geometric slide- 
rest, and generally made, are the ellipse, eccentric, 
and heart-shaped; both the plain eccentric and 
ellipse have their centre apertures elongated, so that 
each may be made to produce a greater variety of 
patterns, consequent upon the different positions in 
which they are fixed upon the spindle. 

The examples illustrated have all, with two 



126 ORNA^rENTAL TURNING. 

exceptions, been executed with the eccentric cutter, 




Fig. 180* 
Xo. 5 beiug cut with the ellipse cutter, while for No, 6 



THE GEOMETRIC SLIDE-REST. 127 

a fixed tool only is employed, arrested by the fluting- 
stop. This style of work may be largely extended by 
the various combinations of the cam and change 
wheels ; such patterns as this, however, are not suit- 
able for deep cutting. The number of curves may be 
reduced, and panels, arches, and miniature frames of 
elegant designs may be produced, moulded au'd shaped 
in endless ways by iigured drills and cutters. The 
apparatus altogether forms a most interesting study, 
and may be made productive of work unattainable 
by any other means. 



CHAPTEE XIV. 

THE ELLIPSE CUTTEK. 

This iastrument (Fig. 181), as it is now made, con- 
sists of two distinct parts : the means of producing 
the ellipse, and that also of correcting the angular 




aberration consequent upon altering the eccentricities 
The first part, namely, the means of cutting an ellipse 
was invented by the late Major James Ash, but from 

128 



THE ELLIPSE CUTTER. 129 

the inability to correct the position of the figure, or 
to compensate the movements, it was not considered, 
nor was it, a perfect instrument. The second part, 
which consists of a worm-wheel and tangent-screw 
movement at the back, was afterwards invented by 
Mr. H. Perigal, P.E.A.S., and this, it will be seen 
from the following details, has overcome the difficulty 
and rendered it a complete and perfect tool It pro- 
duces also looped figures of many proportions, which 
may be cut in a variety of positions, and grouped to 
form a very large number of different patterns; its 
manipulation will be materially assisted by the details 
of its manufacture, of which the following is a brief 
outline; the same will also be of service to scientific 
amateurs in making one of the kind. 

A square stem. A, is fitted to the tool receptacle of 
the usual size ; at the front end a flange is forged, with 
a plain pin about | in. in diameter projecting from it ; 
a long spindle passes entirely through the length of the 
stem, and has a wheel of 48 teeth fixed to it. The 
metal plate B, which has a deep boss on the back, is 
then bored out, and a hardened steel collar driven 
tightly into it; it is then ground out and accurately 
fitted to the fpont part of the stem, and revolves between 
the face of the flange and that of the spindle to which 
the 48 wheel is attached, a portion of the latter 
being turned away to relieve the friction ; a hardwood 

VOL. III. K 



I30 ORNA^rENTAL TURNING. 

pulley is then fixed to the plate by two screws, for the 
purpose of driving the instrument by the overhead 
motion. When thus driven, it wiQ be seen that the 
metal plate, in its revolution, carries every part at- 
tached to it, and moves round the 48 vrheel on the 
spindle. 

On the front of the plate a steel stud is fixed, being 
under the screw c; and at the opposite side a metal 
block is securely attached by two screws at the back, 
and is turned to a true curve from the centre of the 
axis of the stud. A metal flange, d, is then fitted (as 
seen in the engraving. Fig. 181), one end being made to 
fit over the end of the stud, while the opposite extremity 
is turned from that centre to fit the curve which has 
been previously turned from the same point (great 
accuracy is necessary in these pai-ts, as the flange rests 
and moves upon them) ; a curved mortise is then made 
in the wide end, through which a milled-head screw 
passes and holds the flange tightly to the block. A 
short piece of metal is then fitted through the plate B, 
and held to it by a screw at the back, but with a 
freedom of movement ; through this a screw of ten 
threads to the inch is fitted, having a flange in front 
and a small metal collar pinned to the opposite side to 
retain it in its place ; the screw is equal to ten threads 
to the inch, and works in a nut which fits in a round 
hole in the flange, mai'ked E, the end of the screw F 



THE ELLIPSE CUTTER. 131 

being made square, so that the ordinary key will move 
it when required. The socket that holds the screw is 
made to turn, to admit of its moving the flange from 
one point to another to adjust the various eccentricities 
required. The top edge of the flange is divided to an 
accurate scale from to 40, and read by a line marked 
on the block to which it is attached. On the end of 
the spindle, which extends through the opposite ex- 
tremity of the stem, a worm-wheel of 150 teeth is fixed, 
a chamfer being turned on the face, which, for con- 
venience in reading, is divided into seventy-five equal 
parts, and figured 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and so on; a metal 
upright is firmly attached to the end of the square 
stem by two steel screws, to which is fitted the frame 
holding the tangent-screw that actuates the worm-wheel, 
the head of the screw being divided into four equal 
parts. 

Having this part so far finished, the instrument 
should be put together and mounted in a slide-rest, or 
on a block, so that the hole in the front flange that 
receives the eccentric cutter may be turned out per- 
fectly true, while revolving on the stem ; before the 
flange is moved, after the above process, the zero line 
of the division should be marked, as this point will 
denote the accurate centrality of the instrument. The 
hole thus turned out is provided with a steel collar 
accurately fitted. The front eccentric cutter, which is 



132 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

precisely the same as Fig. 62, as far as it goes, is then 
fitted, having a short stem which projects through the 
flange, and to which is fixed a wheel of 36 teeth ; two 
wheels, 24 and 36 teeth fixed together, are then fitted 
to revolve upon the stud, and by these the 48 on the 
spindle and 36 on the eccentric cutter are connected ; 
and upon rotating the pulley and flange one complete 
circle, the eccentric cutter revolves twice in the opposite 
direction, thus causing the tool to cut an ellipse. 

The screw and division of the flange D are of the 
same value as that on the micrometer of the screw 
in the eccentric cutter K, which agrees with all screws 
of a similar description, one turn moving the tool 
to a radius of -^^ inch, while a corresponding move- 
ment of the screw F results in the same amoimt of 
eccentricity to flange d, and in this way the two move- 
ments are adjusted, iu proportions required for ellipses 
of various degrees. 

"\Mien the instrument is adjusted for use, the 
eccentric cutter K should stand across the face of 
the flange at a right angle, and to facilitate this 
adjustment, a hole marked H is made through the face 
of the flange D, over the teeth of the wheels, the 
teeth and space of the latter being marked with a 
small dot, seen through the hole, thus ensuring the 
correct readjustment of the wheels when the instru- 
ment has been taken apart. 



THE ELLIPSE CUTTER. 133 

When the flange D and the eccentric cutter K are 
both set to their respective zeros, the tool simply cuts 
a minute dot, and this may be described as one test 
of its accuracy, and if the instrument will not perform 
this, good work cannot be executed. If eccentricity 
be given to either the flange d or eccentric cutter k, 
the tool wiU describe a circle equal to the same 
eccentricity, while if the eccentric cutter k be set 
to a corresponding eccentricity to the flange, the tool 
win cut a straight line twice the length of the com- 
bined eccentricities, and if the eccentricity of either be 
increased, the tool will cut an ellipse. 

The exact proportions of the ellipse produced are 
decided by the eccentricities of the flange d jand the 
cutter K, the longer or transverse axis being always 
twice the amount, while the short diameter or con- 
jugate axis equals twice the difference ; therefore, any 
variation may be given to the curve by the adjust- 
ment of the eccentricities to produce an ellipse of an 
elongated form, or the same may be reduced to a circle 
if necessary. 

When cutting a series of ellipses, it will be neces- 
sary to employ the worm-wheel or tangeiit-screw at 
the back, in order to compensate each row, otherwise 
they will not stand vertically or coincide in any way. 
The necessity for this compensation arises from the 
fact that the course traversed by the revolution of 



134 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

the eccentric cutter K with each separate movement 
of the flange D will cause each succeeding series of 
ellipses to be more or less at an angle, their direction 
being to the left if the eccentricity is decreased, and 
to the right when the same is extended. As before 
mentioned, the worm-wheel has 150 teeth, with a 
division of 75 equal parts on the face, the micrometer 
being divided into four equal parts, and iigured 0, 1, 2, 3. 
It will be obvious that one turn of the screw will 
move the wheel through the space of one tooth, by 
which the 48 wheel, attached to the same spindle, 
is moved a corresponding distance. 

One quarter of a turn, or one division of the 
micrometer, precisely compensates the angularity occa- 
sioned by the flange D being moved one division of 
the scale, and as the movement of the flange is 
increased, the worm-wheel is correspondingly moved 
in the required proportion, while if the ellipses are 
cut with the eccentricity of the flange reduced, the 
worm-wheel must be moved in the same equal pro- 
portion, but in the reverse direction. In most in- 
stances the worm-wheel is employed to compensate 
every individual movement of the flange, but it is also 
used in placing the various patterns in different posi- 
tions on the work, and is at times used entirely for 
this purpose, the work being held stationary by the 
index-point in the dial-plate of the lathe-puUey. 



THE ELLIPSE CUTTER. 135 

To use the words of the inventor, Major Ash, with 
whom the author worked at many points of the instru- 
ment for hours together ; it should in the first place 
he set all at centre, that is, the worm-wheel, flange, 
and eccentric cutter are all adjusted to their respective 
zeros, and when thus set, if the instrument is accurate, 
the tool will cut a small dot. The height of centre 
must also be studied, and the tool adjusted precisely 
to it by the elevating ring of the slide-rest, it must 
also be set to the same point laterally; by these 
adjustments the ellipse cutter is precisely in the centre 
of the material to be decorated. 

As an example of simple patterns and adjustments, 
to place a series of ellipses of equal proportion, or, in 
other words, concentric, the eccentric cutter may be 
moved, say, eight divisions of its micrometer, while 
the flange is moved four divisions of its scale ; and to 
place the separate cuts in equal proportion, the move- 
ments of each must coincide. 

To produce a pattern in which the ellipses all lay 
parallel, the eccentricity of the flange remains station- 
ary, while that of the eccentric cutter is reduced in 
equal ratio for each cut. Another effective pattern is 
one in which the straight line is first cut and the 
proportions gradually reduced until a circle is the re- 
sult. To effect this, the eccentric cutter k and the 
flange D are both equally extended, as to eccentricity, 



136 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

to cut the straight line; the cutter K then remains 
unaltered, while the flange D is reduced for each 
consecutive cut until the zero coincides with the 
reading line, when the tool will again cut a circle equal 
to its eccentricity. 

The three foregoing examples explain how the 
instrument is to be employed for simple ellipses, but 
as the more complex patterns are approached, it will be 
found necessary to employ the worm-wheel and tangent- 
screw to adjust the various cuts to the required positions. 
The worm-wheel having 150 teeth, the micrometep on 
the screw being divided into four, and one turn moving 
it through the space of one tooth, it wiU require thirty- 
seven and a half turns to place two ellipses at right 
angles, but that number of turns must be calculated 
from the division at which the wheel may stand when 
it has been moved to compensate for any extension of 
the flange D for the first cut. To place three ellipses 
equidistantly, it will require twenty-five turns of the 
screw for each, and, by calculation, any number of 
ellipses may be thus placed equally round the work. 

So far, the instrument has only been regarded as 
to its powers of cutting ellipses of any proportion 
between the straight line and circle ; its powers, how- 
ever, are largely extended by the introduction of extra 
wheels of 24 and 48 teeth. These two wheels replace 
the 24 and 36 on the stud, and that on the stem of 



THE ELLIPSE CUTTER. m 

the eccentric cutter has substituted' for it one of 24 
teeth in place of that having 36. To make this altera- 
tion, the screw c is removed from the stud, and the 
mUled-head screw taken out, the flange is then with- 
drawn from the face, the 24 wheel is fixed to the 
eccentric cutter, the 24 and 48 placed on the stud, and 
the flange replaced ; the wheel of 48 teeth attached to 
the spindle running through the stem is not changed. 
The screw f need not be removed from the nut, as 
the fitting by which it is held to the flange being 
circular, it can be drawn off the nut without the least 
difficulty. This train of wheels is thus 48—24, which 
causes the eccentric cutter to revolve four times to one 
rotation of the pulley, thus creating a four-looped 
figure. The various ratios between the two points, 
that is, the flange and tool, with regard to these 
eccentricities, of course alter the character of the figure 
to a large or small degree, according to the movement 
of either, or both. 

As an example of the difference to be obtained, we 
wUl once more set the instrument all at centre, and 
if from this point the flange and eccentric cutter are 
extended a like distance, the loops will touch at the 
centre, and the result wUl be that the four wUl each 
resemble an egg in shape, the curves decreasing in 
width towards the centre. If the eccentricity of the 
flange alone be increased, it will be seen at once that 



138 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

the figure is entirely different, resulting in an open 
eusped figure with looped extremities ; the amount 
of open space in each loop depending upon the varia- 
tion in the eccentricity given to the flange, which 
may be made to eventually result in a square; the 
radius of the tool also varies the shape of the figure. 

The above explains the result of extended eccen- 
tricity to the flange only ; now, to effect another varia- 
tion, if the movement of the tool as to eccentricity 
be increased beyond that of the flange, the course of 
the loops will be round the centre, leaving a figured 
space at that part, the amount of curve left in the 
centre of the different figures resulting from the ratios 
of the two settings. 

It will be found necessary to resort to the worm- 
wheel and tangent-screw at the back, to correct the 
angularity of the figures, that is, where each successive 
cut requires an increase of eccentricity to the flange, 
and supposing that a series of loops is to be placed on 
the work, eccentric to the axis, the instrument receives 
lateral adjustment from the main screw of the slide- 
rest, by which means the figures may be placed any 
distance from the centre. 

The figure itself may be multiplied by varying the 
position of the tool with the worm-wheel; if, for 
instance, it is desired to have two four-looped figures 
so placed as to represent eight loops all equidistantly 



THE ELLIPSE CUTTER. 139 

apart ; the first cut having been made, the worm-wheel 
at the back must be moved by eighteen and three-quarter 
turns of the tangent-screw, the same proportionate 
movement of the screw being necessary for increased 
numbers, the adjustment, as in the previous instance, 
being calculated from the point at which the wheel 
stands after the figure has been adjusted to the vertical 
position. A still further improvement is made to this 
instrument by the addition of a second radial arm, which 
is fitted over the circular boss of the flange, and has a 
curved slot concentric to it, through which a screw fixes 
it to the face of the flange. This again carries two 
wheels attached to it, revolving on pivots, so that either 
or both may be employed to produce the figures in either 
direction — that is, inwards or outwards. To engage 
with this arrangement, a small wheel of 18 teeth is 
placed upon the end of the eccentric cutter, the 48 
wheel on the centre spindle still remaining unchanged. 



CHAPTEE XV. 

THE EPICYCLOIDAL CUTTER. 

This instrument (Fig. 182) may be considered an 
extension of the ellipse cutter, with additions that 



Fig./82. 




render it capable of producing a very large number 
of different patterns. It represents, in point of fact, 

140 



THE EPICYCLOIDAL CUTTER. 141 

the first part of a small geometric chuck, mounted 
on the slide-rest instead of on the mandrel-nose, and 
although very similar to Fig. 181, its construction in 
many respects differs. The diameter of the driving- 
pulley, the^roove of which is turned on the edge of 
the plate b, is 5j in. in diameter, the increase in size 
admitting of a larger number of change wheels being 
employed. A considerable advantage is found in all 
the necessary changes of the trains of wheels being 
confined to one arbor only, which is easily removed, 
and does not necessitate the partial taking apart of 
the instrument each time different wheels are required. 
The ability to introduce a greater number of wheels, 
and consequent variations in ratios, gives a largely 
increased range of loops, both consecutive and cir- 
culating, the former ranging from 2 to 6, that is, 2, 3, 
4, 5, 6, emanating from the number of revolutions of 
the eccentric cutter in proportion to the rotation of 
the pulley, while the latter are to be obtained from 
5 to 90 by delaying the rotation of the eccentric 
ciitter, and introducing to the train of wheels a frac- 
tibnal, value. With this instrument all figures may 
have their loops turned inwards or outwards, but 
require coinpensating, which is effected by the worm- 
wheel and tangent-screw at the back, the same as in 
the ellipse cutter, with the exception that the wheel 
has 96 instead of 15Q teeth. The amount of 



142 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

compensation required will depend entirely upon the 
relative movements and ratios of the eccentric cutter ■ 
and flange. The details which follow will render the 
manipulation of this instrument comparatively easy. 

The square stem A is fitted to the tool-box of the 
slide-rest, and has a round end upon which the driving- 
pulley 3 revolves, the metal being bushed with a 
hardened steel collar; through the square stem a 
spindle is fitted, having fixed to the front end a wheel, 
0, of 64 teeth; on the opposite extremity, the worm- 
wheel D of 96 teeth is attached by a hexagonal hole 
and a screw in the end, a metal upright, E, is also 
fixed to the square stem, to hold the frame in which 
the tangent-screw works ; on the top of the frame two 
set screws F F are fitted, to more accurately adjust 
the^ movement ; the micrometer of the screw is then 
divided into fifty equal parts, and figured at every 
ten, by which the wheel may be subdivided into the 
numbers required. 

On the face of the plate b a stud is fixed at the 
lower extremity as the instrument stands vertically 
in the tool-box, at the opposite side a block of metal 
is attached to the same plate ; a metal flange, G, is 
then fitted, one end to the upper part of the stud, 
the opposite resting upon the block of metal before 
referred to; this is fixed by a screw in the stud H, 
and a milled-head screw, j, passing through a curved 



THE EPICYCLOIDAL CUTTER. i43 

slot in the flange; when this is so far fitted the 
instrument should be mounted on a block, as recom- 
mended for Pig. 181, and the centre of the flange 
turned out perfectly true to receive a steel collar. In 
this the stem of the eccentric cutter k is fitted, and 
on the end that passes through the flange a wheel of 
40 teeth is securely attached by a screw and steady- 
pin ; this wheel, unlike that fixed in a similar way to 
the stem of the ellipse cutter, never requires to be 
moved, bat remains constant. 

To the stud under the screw ii two wheels are 
fitted to revolve on a socket, in which is a steel collar. 
These have 60 and 32 teeth respectively, the latter 
being on the lower end near the face of the plate B, 
and in the same plane as the 64 wheel attached 
to the spindle in the centre of the stem A ; the two 
wheels are fixed together, and of course revolve simul- 
taneously. Above the surface of the flange g, and 
fitting over the end of the stud h, a steel radial arm 
with a mortise (open at the end) is attached, and 
partially rotates, being fixed when required by a screw, 
L, which passes through a short semi-circular slot, 
allowing sufficient movement to admit of any of the 
changes of wheels passing into gear. 

To the radial mortise in this arm a removable arbor 
is fitted, to slide throughout its length, and in this 
again a spindle revolves to carry the change wheels, 



144 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

two of -which are always attached to it by a circular 
milled-head nut. This arbor is so arranged that the 
upper wheel gears with the 40 on the end of the 
eccentric cutter, while the lower one performs the same 
office with the upper wheel of the two on the stud h, 
which has 60 teeth, and until the removable arbor is 
interposed, there is no connection between the wheel 
on the stud and that on the eccentric cutter; and 
provided two wheels of the same number are employed 
to make the connection, the value of the train remains 
the same, and will produce a three-looped figure, the 
tool in the eccentric cutter rotating three times for 
one complete revolution of the plate or pulley, and 
the various wheels employed on the removable arbor 
multiply or divide the initial value of the permanent 
train of wheels, which is : 64 — 60 

32—40 
To alter the wheels on- the arbor, the screw is 
loosened by the key and the arbor withdrawn; the 
screw that binds the arm to the flange is also 
slackened, and, when the wheels are changed, the 
arbor is returned and the wheels geared by the lateral 
adjustment in the radial slot, and the semi-rotation of 
the arm, both screws being then retightened. The 
64 wheel on the spiudle through the stem, and 
the 32 on the lower portion of the socket that 
revolves upon the stud, are connected by two carrier 



THE EPICYCLOIDAL CUTTER. 145 

wheels, m m, which are attached to the plate B, by- 
screws from the back, the plain part which goes 
through the plate moving freely in a hole larger than 
itself, so that each one may be thrown in or out of gear 
as required. Under the screw-head a washer is placed 
to cover the hole, and to more readily clamp the stud 
upon which the wheels revolve. 

The object of these two wheels is to change the 
direction of the figures; for instance, if both are 
employed at the same time, we have an even number 
of axes at work, which causes the loops of the figure 
to turn inwards, while if one only is geared, the result 
is that the loops turn outwards. The carrier wheels do 
not alter the value of the train in any way, but simply 
afford the means of changing the direction in which 
the tool traverses. 

The eccentric cutter is fitted up in precisely the 
same way as for Fig. 181. The edge of the block is 
divided to a scale of 100 divisions, read by a line 
marked on the flange G ; and the means of adjusting 
the flange by a screw of ten threads to the inch is also 
fitted in the same way as that on the ellipse cutter, so 
that equal movements- of the- tool and flange result 
in corresponding eccentricities to both. The worm- 
wheel and tangent-screiy for the compensation of 
the angular aberration -of the figures is in all respects 
the' same as in Fig. l&l, with the exception, as before 

VOL. III. L 



t46 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

mentioned, that the wheel has 96 teeth in place of 
150. 

In order that the figures to be produced may be in 
a vertical position, it is necessary that the flange should 
stand horizontally when the wheel on the removable 
arbor is geared with that fixed to the eccentric cutter, 
the latter being then in the vertical position, and the 
division on the flange being set also at its zero. To 
regain this position, two lines are marked, one on the 
cylinder boss at the back of the puUey, the other, 
which represents the reading line, upon the edge of 
the circular flange of the stem, against which the 
fitting of the pulley revolves. When these two lines 
are coincident, the above adjustments are made. 

The epicycloidal cutter, as already described, produces 
many very beautiful figures of a fine-Hue description, 
the beauty of which is really more advantageously seen 
when printed, and although the variety of patterns to 
be produced is practically endless, the particular de- 
scription of work to which it is confined greatly 
detracts from its value ; and it was after a long series 
of experiments with the instrument that the author 
arrived at the conclusion that its merits would be 
very much enhanced by the introduction of a means 
of cutting the patterns deeply into the surface of the 
work, and removing the superfluous material, thus 
leaving the figure in relief upon the surface. 



THE EPICYCLOIDAL CUTTER. 



H7 



To effect the above result, it is of course necessary 
that the combined motions of the instrument travel 
precisely the same course, but at a very slow speed. 
This is provided by the addition of the worm-wheel 
A, Fig. 183, which is fixed to the short-cylinder body 



f/g 183 




at the back of the plate B. This wheel has 140 teeth 
cut on its periphery, the edge of it being divided, 
to note its partial rotation. A plate of steel, c, is 
then fitted to the square stem, and attached to the 
face of its flange, also by two screws. This plate, it 
will be seen, extends upwards high enough to admit 



I4S ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

of the frame D, which carries the tangent-screw E, 
being held to it by a screw, F, which forms the axis 
upon which it moves. A milled-head thumb-screw, G, 
passes through a short-curved mortise in the steel 
plate, described from the axis of the screw F, and is 
tapped into the frame d, which is cut away iu the 
centre to receive the tangent screw E; the latter is 
supported at the opposite end by a centre screw, H, 
and shouldered in at the front end, the face being 
chamfered to receive the divisions to act as a micro- 
meter, the end being squared to receive a winch-handle, 
and the division read by a line on the frame d. The 
micrometer is divided into four equal parts, figured 
0, 1, 2, 3. 

With this arrangement it will be seen that the 
motion of the two parallel movemants is not in any 
way influenced with regard to their value one to the 
other, but the speed at which they move is placed 
entirely under the control of the operator by the 
wiQch-handle J, so that a slow, continuous traverse 
or a series of partial rotations may be made to suit 
the work to be decorated. So far we have the means 
of controlling the revolution of the instrument, and 
by reference to the following description of the small 
drilling instrument. Fig. 184, it will be seen that the 
power of deep cutting is also supplied. 

This little instrument, which is fitted to the 



THE EPICYCLOIDAL CUTTER. 149 

tool-box of the eccentric cutter k (Fig. 182), is made so 
that its axis agrees with that of the instrument, when 
set all at centre. On the front of the stem a short 
cylinder, with a cone at the back, is turned perfectly 
true, and hardened; this is necessary from the high 
speed at which it reyolves. To this is fitted a steel 
pulley, retained in its place by a screw countersunk 
into the stem ; to the front of the pulley a steel nozzle 
is fitted, so that it can be detached, and in this a small 
taper-hole is bored to receive the drills, which may be 
made of many patterns, similar to those used in the 
ordinary- drill-spindle. The drills should all be turned 
in their place to ensure accuracy, which is a most 
important point. 

When used, the drill is driven from the overhead 
motion at a high speed, which is easily obtained, in 
consequence of the minute diameter of its pulley. The 
penetration of the tool is decided in the same way as 
for other works, by the depth and stop-screws, and 
the movement of the instrument for the looped figure 
governed by the winch-handle. 

One of the difficulties that at first stood in the way 
of the progress of this introduction was the inability, 
with the old style of overhead motion, Fig. 10, to 
follow the course of the instrument as it carries the 
drill from point to point through a looped figure, its 
position being continually altered, as more or less 



ISO ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

eccentricity is given to either the flange or the eccentric 
cutter; and the same objection applied to it as when 
used in the rose cutter, which will be explained in the 
following chapter. This was overcome in a great 
measure by employing a flexible band, but this, 
although it was found to answer fairly well, had its 
disadvantages. 

Many leading amateurs at once decided to have the 
improved overhead motion (Fig. 11) fitted to their 
lathes, by which the drill under notice, and aU other 
instruments (that do not require a rise and fall), are 
more evenly and smoothly rotated, without the con- 
tinued changing of the band. 

A further addition, emanating from the same 
source, will be readily seen by reference to Fig. 185. 
This is a miniature eccentric cutter, fitted at the stem 
in precisely the same way as the drill (Fig. 184). 
Attached to the front of the pulley is the slide by 
which the eccentricity is obtained, its axis being also 
coincident with the instrument. By the use of this 
addition the variety of patterns may be largely in- 
creased, as it affords the opportunity of cutting a 
second figure over the course already traced by the 
action of the instrument. 

For a variety of figures composed of consecutive 
cuts, the worm-wheel (Fig. 183) forms the means of 
dividing the work, as it is by this, in conjunction with 



THE EPICYCLOIDAL CUTTER. 151 

the tangent-screw and micrometer, that it is equally 
spaced out. The driU may be usefully employed to 
place a series of beads or pearls throughout the looped 
figures ; such patterns, however, may be said to apply 
to figures of consecutive loops only, for the reason that 
when the higher numbers of circulating loops are 
approached, the pattern becomes mixed up and the 
effect marred. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE EOSE CUTTEK. 

This instrument, as illustrated by Fig. 186, produces on 
a limited scale similar patterns to those emanating from 
the rose engine, and the latter may now be said to be 
quite out of fashion, being very seldom made, except 
for trade purposes, and then in a plain form only. It 
will be seen that the instrument under notice receives a 
rotary and oscillating motion at the same time, while 
the work is held stationary by the index, the various 
adjustments being made, in the radius of the tool, the 
lateral traverse of the slide-rest, and the movement of 
the worm-wheel D attached to the disc, upon which the 
rosette is fixed. With the rose engine the same move- 
ments occur to the apparatus fitted to the mandrel and 
head-stock, which rocks on centres, while the tool is 
stationary in the slide-rest. The number of patterns to 
be cut on the face are practically endless, and, by various 
combinations, may be made very beautiful indeed. Those 
illustrated, however, are only for the purpose of more 
fully explaining the movements of the instrument, 

152 



THE ROSE CUTTER. 



153 



which, like its predecessors, will be more easily under- 
stood by the details of its mamifacture. 

The square stem A is made to fit the tool receptacle 
of the slide-rest, and is provided with a plain circular 
fitting with a flange. Through the entire length a steel 




spindle passes, fitting a slightly taper hole in the stem 
A ; on the rear end of this spindle a worm-wheel, b, is 
fixed, actuated by a tangent-screw working in a metal 
frame fixed to the support c on the end of the stem. 
A pulley is fitted to the tangent-screw for the purpose 



IS4 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

of driving it from the overhead motion, whereby the 
instrument is set in motion. On the front, or opposite 
extremity of the stem, a circular disc is fitted, to which 
the rosette is fixed by a circular ring or n^t, with lever 
holes in the edge. In order that the necessary changes 
may be made, the centre aperture in the rosette is made 
just large enough to pass over the frame and pulley at 
the other end. To this disc is attached a worm-wheel, 
D, of 96 teeth, aud a tangent-screw to move it in both 
directions, so that the undulations in the figure may be 
placed as desired ; the disc revoh es between the face of 
the flange on the stem and that of the collar E, which 
is part of the spindle that passes through the stem, and 
to which the worm-wheel and tangent-screw at the back 
are fixed. To the face of this collar a gun-metal oblong 
plate, F, is securely fixed by a strong screw and steady- 
pin ; to this plate is fitted a steel slide, K, to work at 
right angles to the stem, between two chamfered side 
bars ; this slide carries a steel tool-box similar to that in 
the eccentric cutter, and is actuated by a main screw of 
ten threads to the inch to correspond with all others of a 
like nature, the micrometer being divided also in the 
same way. The slide, it will be seen, is made the entire 
length of the plate, and the tool by this means can be 
placed on either side of the axis of the stem, in the same 
diametrical line. To obtain the oscillatins: motion 
necessary to the slide, the end of the plate F has a slot 



THE ROSE CUTTER. i55 

cut ia it, and to the slide a steel post is fixed, upon 
which a small steel roller revolves. This, when in use, 
is kept in contact with the rosette by a strong spring, H, 
attached to a screw in the metal plate F at one end, and 
through the pillar that carries the roller at the other, a 
small milled nut is fitted on the end of the spring, by 
which the tension is altered ; the spring passes freely 
through a hole in the centre of the collar E. By this it 
will be seen that as the roller passes round the rosette 
it is always in contact with it, and the tool traces the 
figure on the work. 

At the end of the plate f, opposite to that on which 
the pillar holding the roller is fixed, a steel stop-screw is 
fitted to a projection, also fixed to the same plate ; this 
is used to prevent the roller from following the full 
depth of the figure contained in the rosette. It is also 
employed to keep the roller from coming into contact 
with the rosette in any way, in which case the tool 
describes a circle only, the diameter being determined 
by the radius given to the tool. 

This instrument, like the epicycloidal cutter, also 
receives the small drilling instrument (Fig. 184), and 
when this is employed the movement of the roller 
round the rosette is controlled by the winch-handle on 
the tangent-screw of the worm-wheel. The miniature 
eccentric cutter (Fig. 185) is also applicable, and renders 
some very beautiful work, as the patterns emanating 



156 



ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 




Fig. 187. 




Fig. 188. 



THE ROSE CUTTER. 157 

from its introduction may be carried out entirely 
through the form of the rosette employed, which adds 
so much to the effect of this style of decoration. 

The manipulation of the rose cutter is by no means 
a difficult process, as will be seen by the following 
examples. Fig. 187 is the result of employing the 
rosette B. The roller is first moved by the stop-screw, 
so that a circle only is described by its revolution, and 
the slide-rest adjusted laterally till the axis of the 
instrument is perfectly true to that of the work on 
which the pattern is to be cut ; the stop-sCrew is then 
withdrawn, in order that the roller may take effect on 
the undulations of the rosette ; the tool is then set to 
a radius of ^, that is, eleven turns of the main screw 
of the right-angle slide, by which the tool is carried 
towards the micrometer of the slide ; the penetration is 
then adjusted by the stop-screw of the top slide, to cut 
a fine line, the tool being a double angle of 45°; the 
instrument is then set in motion by the pulley on 
the tangent-screw at the rear end, a slow speed being in 
most cases necessary. The result of this rosette is as 
seen throughout the different patterns cut on Fig. 187. 
the simple waved line nearest the margin being produced 
by the adjustment referred to. 

The eccentricity of the tool is reduced by one turn, 
and the same form again traced. The result of the two 
lines seen in the second. pattern is. for the purpose of 



158 ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 

explaining the use of the worm-wheel d, attached to the 
disc on which the rosette is fixed. Having cut the first 
line, the rosette is moved bj" the tangent-screw, so that 
the second line crosses the centre of the first, and this 
may be divided into many parts for various patterns. 
This will be referred to again ; at present, the two lines 
are quite a primary example of the manner in which it 
is used. 

By reducing the radius of the tool one turn more, 
the same figure is again cut, while by a further reduction 
of one half turn, or j-^q in., for each consecutive cut, 
the six following are equi-distantly placed, giadually 
decreasing in diameter and width of wave. From this 
point a difierent movement is added to the adjustments, 
by which the pattern is carried out in the same way, as 
for similar results in plain circles, cut by the eccentric 
cutter. The tool is again reduced in radius by one half 
turn, and moved laterally by the main screw of the 
slide-rest a corresponding distance — namely, one half 
turn ; by repeating these movements nine times, a shell 
composed of waved lines is the result. It will be seen 
that as each cut nears the centre the figure becomes 
more pointed. This is not from any additional move- 
ment, but simply from the gradiial diminution in the 
diameter. 

Fig. 188 is produced by employing what may be 
termed the opposite rosette to that used for the previous 



THE ROSE CUTTER. ,159 

example, inasmuch as the curves cut are all convex 
instead of concave ; the instrument is adjusted as before 
to agree with the periphery of the work, the tool set out 
to a radius of \%, and the first cut made. This gives 
simply the result of the combined motions round this 
particular description of rosette. For the two next cuts 
the tool is reduced in radius by one turn of the screw, 
and the same penetration inserted ; the rosette is then 
moved by two turns of the tangent-screw of worm-wheel 
D attached to the disc, and the second cut made. By 
this it will be seen that the pattern crosses in the same 
way as the second series in Kg 187. 

The inner pattern illustrates an additional move- 
ment, by which the pattern is twisted. To produce 
this, the following adjustments are necessary : For the 
first cut the radius of the tool is again reduced by one 
turn, for the second the radius is further reduced by one 
half turn of the screw, and one and a half turns of the 
tangent-screw of the worm-wheel D, these movements 
being precisely the same for each succeeding cut. The 
patterns may be reversed by moving the tangent-screw 
in the opposite direction. 

Fig. 189, This example is produced by employing 
the same rosette, as the line nearest the margin will 
show. The succeeding cut, however, illustrates the use 
of the stop-screw. Having reduced the radius of the 
tool byl^one turn of the main screw, the stop-screw is 



i6o 



ORXA.UENTAL TURXING. 








Fig. 1S9. 




Fig. 190. 



THE ROSE CUTTER. i6i 

brought to bear lightly upon the slide, and then moved 
forward one turn. The effect of this is to prevent the 
roller reaching the lowest part of the undulation in the 
rosette, by which the true form of the latter is de- 
stroyed, and a portion of the figure becomes a part of a 
concentric circle only, the curves resulting from that 
part of the rosette which touches the roller in its 
rotation. This process is repeated throughout the rest 
of the pattern, and it will be seen that, as the centre is 
approached, the figure gradually decreases in proportion. 
Fig. 190 portrays the form of the rosette c ; the 
adjustment of the instrument as to centre is the same, 
the marginal line being simply the result of the figure ; 
the second series is produced by the reduction of the 
radius of the tool for the first cut ; for the second the 
worm-wheel d is moved by two turns of the tangent- 
screw, while for the third the same amount is necessary ; 
by this the pattern is crossed. The inner pattern is 
produced from the same rosette, each consecutive cut 
being made one half turn of the screw nearer the 
centre ; the concentric circle is cut perfectly true to the 
figure by reducing the radius to the diameter required, 
and by the stop-screw being moved forward so that the 
roller will not touch the rosette. 

Fig. 191 illustrates the application of the rosette d ; 
the movements of the tool being similar to those for the 
preceding figures. 

VOL. III. M 



l62 



ORNAMENTAL TURNING. 




Fig. 191. 




Fig. l;i2. 



THE ROSE CUTTER. 163 

Fig. 192. By this example we arrive at the means 
of placing the various figures to be obtained by the rose 
cutter eccentric to the axis of the work. These may be 
varied to a very large extent, and by employing either 
of the ornamental chucks may be placed in almost any 
position that can be desired as to distance from the 
axis of the work; the pulley is then held stationary 
at the four quadrants of the circle. The four patterns 
are all produced from different rosettes, the radius of 
the tool being adjusted to the diameter required, and 
the instrument moved by the slide-rest screw, so that 
each pattern may be contained within the space. 

The author wishes it to be clearly understood that 
the foregoing examples are not illustrated as figures of 
beauty, but simply to show clearly the manner in 
which the instrument is manipulated, and for such 
purposes the least complicated are most appreciable. 



THE END. 



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AMATEUR ELECTRICIAN'S WORKSHOP, 

BOOK I. 

Illustrated by 30 carefully prepared diagrams. 
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A Handbook of Practical Instruction in the mailing of Electrical 
Models and Appliances. 



CONTENTS. 

How to Make an Electro - Motor — The Making'-up of 
Lalaude-Chaperon and Chromic Acid Batteries — The 
Construction of a One-Inch Kiihmkorfif Spark Coil- 
How to Make a Wireless Telegraph— How to Use a 
Wireless Telegraph— Sparking Coils for Motors : How 
to Make and Repair. 



WHAT THE PRESS SAYS: 

" Well worthy of a place in the library of the amateur." — VVeslmiiister 
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"Capital; . . . quiteup to the author's high standard." — Literary World. 

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' ' Valuable advice. " — Liverpool Mercury, 

"Details for making a Wireless Telegraph aie clearly set forth." — 
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"The instructions have the commanding merit of practicability." — 
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PRACTICAL KITES 
AND AEROPLANES: 

How to Make and Work Them. 



lustrated by Forty-three Carefully Prepared Diagrams. 



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By FREDERICK WALKER, C.E. 

Fellow of the Society of Patent Ag:eiits, Associate Member of tlie 
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A Practical Work on the Construction and Use 
of Kites and Aeroplanes, with special con = 
sideration of the best mode of constructing 
kites for ascertaining the state of the upper 
atmosphere, photographing, wireless and 
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ing sufficient confidence, aerial flight or 
aerial traction. 



GUILBERT PITMAN, 86 & 87, Fleet Street, E.G. 



POSSIBILITIES OF SMALL LATHES. 

A thoroughly practical and up'tO'date treatise 
upon modem Lathes of small dimension s. 

Profusely Illustrated. Cloth, 1/6 net ; Post free, 1/8. 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. 

The Cheap £10 Lathe; Examples of a few Simple Articles; 
Designing; Home-made Tools; Ovals or Ellipses for Small 
Frames; Spiral Work; Square and Triangular Pedestals; 
Swinging or Balanced Overhead ; Details and Further 
Particulars of Overhead ; Cone Plate or Boring Collar ; 
Pipe Chucks ; Screw Chasing ; Dumbleton's Apparatus ; 
Ornamental DriUing; Metal Work; Chucks; Home-made 
Chucks and Drills ; New Forms of Home-made Overhead ; 
Principle of Cutting-Tools ; Cutter-Bars ; Gauges, Squares, 
and other Measuring Instruments ; Simple Lessons in 
Turning. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

PRESS OPINIONS. 

' ' There must be many amateur users of small lathes to whom this little 
book will bring some pleasant surprises." — Manchester Guardian. 

"Well-written, useful, and intensely interesting." — Midland Herald. 

"Contains plenty of practical hints." — American Machinist. 

" Mr. Lukin has a thorough understanding of his subject, and is happy 
in conveying his knowledge to others." — Sheffield Daily Independent. 

"This is a handy little book of absorbing interest to the amateur me- 
chanic. Valuable hints are given regarding ornamental ■ turning in wood 
and metals, on drills and drilhng, and the making of tools. It is a most 
useful book." — Newcastle Daily Leader. 

"The subject is very attractively treated, and forms a most interesting 
revelation of the astonishing capabilities of a simple lathe. The book, 
moreover, is not marred by too technical descriptions, and is illustrated by 
nearly lOo pictures." — Blackburn Telegraph. 

"The author is a well-known amateur mechanic, and his instructions are 
always thoroughly practical. The book is an excellent one, and will appeal 
to many of our readers." — Scientific American. 

"Those of our members who incline to mechanical pursuits will be 
interested in this little book, which that enterprising publisher, Mr. Guilbert 
Pitman, has just issued. He refutes the idea that small lathes are useless 
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machine." — People's Journal [Dundee). 



GUILBERT PITMAN, 86 & 87, Fleet Street, E.G. 



BOXXONE'S 

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WITH 

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COMMENDATIONS FROM WELL-KNOWN PAPERS: 

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in the other parts of an electric ignition system. The Author is a practical 
man of experience. One of the most interesting descriptions in the book 
is that of a combination jump spark coil and dynamo of his own invention. 
Instructions are given for m^ing both primary and secondary spark 
coils. The theory of their working is also clearly explained. An intro- 
ductory chapter on the automobile is of considerable interest. " — Scientific 
A mcrican. 

' ' Mr. S. R. Bottone's little volvime on ' Ignition Devices for Gas and 
Petrol Motors' will be found very interesting to the amateur who is 
intelligent enough to wish to know something about the engine which 
drives his laimch, his motor-car, or his bicycle. The preliminary section 
is devoted to a useful disquisition on the choice and management of 
automobiles, with well-arranged information as to their structuiTil details. 
This chapter is alone worth the half-crown demanded for this book." — 
Westminster Gazette. 

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SYSTE)«AT1C JrtEMORY; 

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Complaints are continually heard about bad memories. Some have 
the misfortune of having been born with "shocking bad "memories ; 
while others have, in their early years, been gifted wiih wonderfully 
good memories, but, by some mysterious process, have gradually lost 
the power of retaining even the most recent facts. Some, again, have 
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Parejits will do w:ll to encourage their children to learn 
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Engineering World 

And Amateur Carpenter and Electrician. 

2d. Monthly. 



Principal Contents: 



No. 1. 

Lathe Work fop Young Engineers. 

{^Continued in subsequent I^umbers,') 

Practical Electrical Engineering. 

{Contiinted in subseqjte7it Njimbers^ 

All about Primary Batteries. 

{Continued in Nos. 2 and 3.) 
A Design for an Artistic Wash- 
stand. Etc. 

STo. 2. 

Shelves, and How to Fix them. 
Home-made Device for Decorating 

Glass. 
How to construct a Model Railway 

Track. 
Locking Gate by Electricity. Etc. 

No. 3. 

How to Make a Small Water-Motor. 

A Dwarf Bookcase and its Con- 
struction. 

How to Make a Dynamo. 

Proportions for 15-kilowatt Dy- 
namo. Etc. 

No. 4. 

A Sideboard of Simple Construc- 
tion. 

How to Cure a Draughty Window. 

How to Make a Wimshurst Elec- 
trical Machine. 

{Continued in Nos. 5 and 6.) 

How to Find a Fault on Telephonic 

Apparatus. 
Reversing Gear for Electric Motor. 

Etc. 



No. 5. 

A New Soot-Proof Plug for Gasoline 

Motors. 
An Inexpensive Overmantel for the 

Dining-Room. 
How to Build an Electric Despatch 

Boat. 

(^Continued in Nos. 7, g, and 11.) 

Speed of Pulleys. Etc. 

No. 6. 

A Model Hopper-Bottom Railway 
Wagon. 

I^Continued in Nos. 7, g, andii.) 

Practical Kites and Aeroplanes: 
How to Make and Work Them. 

(JContinued in Nos. 8, 9, lo, and 12.) 

Electric Trams. 

Proportions for al2-inch Spark Coil. 
Etc. 

No. 7. 

Changes in Motor Windings for 

difterent Voltages. 
How to Make a Cribbage-Board. 
How to Make a Settle or Hall-Seat. 
Self-Closing Coal Cabinet. Etc. 

No. 8. 

Three Simple Electro-magnetic 

Experiments. 
How to Make a Magazine Camera. 

{(Soniinued in No. g.) 
Launches, Electric or Steam. 
Screen for Fireplace. Etc. 



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